How do you say "you" in Spanish? In contrast to English, where "you" just say "you," there are a plethora of different ways to say this in Spanish, which we'll explore today.
Subject pronouns in Spanish (e.g. yo (I), tú (you), él/ella (he/she), etc.) are the most basic way to say "you." While in English, "you" is the only second person subject pronoun, in Spanish, there are five different ones, and the one you choose will depend on such factors as whether you are addressing one or more than one person, if the situation is more or less formal, and what region you are in. Let's take a closer look.
Simply put, tú means "you" for speaking to just one person in less formal situations, such as speaking to someone you already know. This is the most common familiar second person subject pronoun in most Spanish-speaking countries.
Tú hablas obviamente muy bien el español, pero
You obviously speak Spanish very well, butPlay Caption
Vos is used in a similar fashion as tú in certain countries/regions. It is heard predominantly in Argentina and Uruguay but also in certain areas of Paraguay, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Mexico, and Venezuela.
¿Y vos hablás de mí?
And you talk about me?
Caption 51, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 11Play Caption
Usted is used to address just one person in more formal situations. Examples might be when you don't know someone and wish to be polite or, perhaps, when addressing an elder.
¿Usted habla del ganso ese? -Sí.
Are you talking about that goose? -Yes.
Caption 54, Muñeca Brava 1 Piloto - Part 10Play Caption
Vosotros and vosotras are employed to address more than one person informally and are thus the plural equivalent of tú. Vosotros is used for a group of all males or a mixed male-female group, while vosotras is used for more than one person when everyone is female. Vosotros and vosotras are only used in Spain.
You [plural] speak.
Caption 11, Fundamentos del Español 7 - Ser y EstarPlay Caption
Ustedes is used in all Spanish-speaking countries except Spain as the only plural form of saying "you," regardless of formality. However, in Spain, it is used more formally as the plural equivalent of usted (to distinguish it with the less formal vosotros/as).
Y es que hay muchas diferencias entre la forma en que ustedes hablan el español
And it's just that there are a lot of differences between the way in which you guys speak Spanish
Captions 44-45, Carlos y Xavi Part 2 Ustedes y VosotrosPlay Caption
All of the aforementioned subject pronouns in these clips have been translated as "you" with the exception of the last one, which was translated with the informal "you guys" to emphasize that it is directed to more than one person. However, it would be perfectly acceptable to translate ustedes as merely "you" since English often employs this pronoun to address multiple people.
For an abundance of additional information on these five subject pronouns for "you" in Spanish, we recommend Carlos' five-part video series on the Tuteo, ustedeo y voseo.
As you may have noticed in the examples above, all of which contain the simple present form of the verb hablar (to speak), the form of "you" utilized affects the verb conjugation. Although this happens in every verb tense in Spanish, let's start by taking a look at the simple present tense conjugations of three common Spanish verbs with their various "you" forms highlighted.
You will note that the verb conjugations for all of the five forms of "you" in Spanish differ from one another. Additionally, the conjugation for usted is the same as the conjugation for the third person singular él/ella (he/she) while the conjugation for ustedes is the same as the third person plural conjugation for ellos/ellas (they). Additionally, the conjugations for vos and vosotros/as are the same for -ir verbs.
Remember that in Spanish, you don't necessarily need to explicitly say the subject pronoun in order to know which one is in use because the verb tenses themselves make that clear. That said, let's examine a few examples with different forms of "you" and the verb saber (to know).
¿Sabéis qué es un volcán?
Do you know what a volcano is?
Caption 18, Aprendiendo con Silvia Los volcanesPlay Caption
Ay, ¿sabes qué?
Oh, you know what?
Caption 21, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 1Play Caption
¿Sabe que no me parece suficiente?
Do you know that it doesn't seem like enough to me?Play Caption
Despite the absence of subject pronouns, you can tell from the verbs' conjugation that the first example refers to vosotros, the second example refers to tú, and the third example refers to usted, and for this reason, all three have been translated with "you know." While the third example could technically refer to él or ella as well since the conjugations for all three are the same, the context (one person speaking directly to another rather than talking about anyone else) alerts you that the speaker is addressing the other person as usted.
Subject pronouns are not the only way to represent the word "you" in Spanish. Other types of Spanish pronouns (direct object, indirect object, and prepositional) also mean "you." Let's see which of each of these types of pronouns correspond with which "you" subject pronouns:
|Subject Pronoun||Direct Object Pronoun||Indirect Object Pronoun||Prepositional Pronoun|
While we won't delve too deeply into these topics, we will provide a brief summary of each of them and give you some examples.
Direct object pronouns take the place of the direct object (the recipient of an action) in a sentence and answer the question of "what" or "who." Let's see a couple of examples:
Vale, no... no os veo... no os veo con mucha...
OK, I don't... I don't see you... I don't see you with a lot...Play Caption
Los veo en el próximo video.
See you in the next video.
Caption 44, Manos a la obra Postres de MinecraftPlay Caption
In both examples, the translation of the direct object pronoun is "you." In the first, os takes the place of vosotros, and in the second, los takes the place of ustedes.
Indirect object pronouns answer the question "to who/whom" or "for who/whom" an action is carried out. Let's take a look:
De verdad, yo le doy la plata que tengo ahí;
Seriously, I'll give you the money I have there;Play Caption
Otra recomendación que les puedo hacer es que traigan zapatos para el agua,
Another recommendation that I can give you is to bring water shoes,
Captions 35-36, Alan x el mundo Mi playa favorita de México! - Part 2Play Caption
In the first example, le lets you know that the speaker will give the money "to" usted, while in the second, the recommendation is being given "to" ustedes. While the indirect object pronouns in these two captions have been translated with simply "you," the translator might also have opted for "I'll give the money I have there to you" and/or "Another recommendation that I can give to you is to bring water shoes."
To learn more about indirect and direct object pronouns, check out this two-part lesson on How to Use Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns.
Prepositional pronouns are pronouns that follow a preposition (words like para (for), de (of, about), en (in, about), etc.) in a sentence.
Este libro es para ti. Este libro es para vos.
This book is for you. This book is for you.
Captions 47-48, Carlos y Cyndy Uso del Voseo en ArgentinaPlay Caption
y hoy, he preparado para ustedes estos objetos
and today, I've prepared these objects for youPlay Caption
Interestingly, ti is the only prepositional pronoun meaning "you" that differs in form from its corresponding subject pronoun.
We hope that this lesson has made clear the many different ways that Spanish expresses the concept of "you." That's all for today... and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
Now that you've learned how to introduce yourself in Spanish, let's go over some basic questions and answers when telling others about ourselves or asking about them.
Asking someone where they are from might be a common introductory question when getting to know someone. Let's take a look at both the tú (informal "you") and usted (formal "you") forms of this question:
O, ¿de dónde eres? ¿De dónde es?
Or, where are you from? [with "tú"]. Where are you from? [with "usted"].
Captions 13-14, Karla e Isabel Tú y UstedPlay Caption
And, what if someone asks you this question? You might use the construction Yo soy de (I'm from) to say the city, country, etc. you come from. Let's see some examples:
Yo soy de San Fernando, Cádiz.
I am from San Fernando, Cádiz.
Caption 27, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 21Play Caption
Yo soy de Argentina, de la provincia de Córdoba, eh... exactamente de un pueblito que se llama Río Ceballos,
I'm from Argentina, from the province of Córdoba, um... precisely from a little town called Río Ceballos;
Captions 8-9, Luana y Fede ViajesPlay Caption
Alternatively, you might say your nationality, particularly when talking about yourself in a foreign country:
Yo soy argentina.
Caption 53, Carlos y Cyndy Uso del Voseo en ArgentinaPlay Caption
Caption 2, Madrid Un recorrido por la capital de EspañaPlay Caption
To learn more about how to talk about nationalities in Spanish, check out this lesson on Adjectives of Nationality in Spanish. Let's explore some additional common questions/answers when getting acquainted with someone in Spanish.
Another is common question you might ask or get asked is, "What do you do (for a living)"? Let's explore a few ways to ask this question:
Bueno, perdón. ¿Tú a qué te dedicas?
Well, sorry. What do you do?Play Caption
¿En qué trabajas tú, Inmaculada?
In what [field] do you work, Inmaculada?
Caption 31, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 12Play Caption
The usted versions would be "¿Usted a qué se dedica?" and "¿En qué trabaja usted?" Another possible way to ask this question is:
¿Cuál es tu/su trabajo?
What's your job?
Now, let's look at some possible responses.
Me dedico a vender la leche.
I sell milk for a living.
Caption 2, Milkman Milk Seller, NicaraguaPlay Caption
Yo trabajo en una tienda de ropa de segunda mano... -Ah...
I work at a second hand clothing store... -Oh...
Caption 69, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 14Play Caption
No, yo soy azafata.
No, I'm a flight attendant.Play Caption
Note that when talking about your profession in Spanish, the appropriate verb is ser ("to be" for fixed characteristics) rather than estar ("to be" for more temporary states) and that, in Spanish, unlike English, you don't include the article. For that reason, the aforementioned example reads soy azafata rather than soy una azafata.
The ways to say "How old are you?" in Spanish are "¿Cuántos años tienes?" when using tú and "¿Cuántos años tiene?" with addressing someone with usted. Let's hear the tú version in action:
¿Tú cuántos años tienes, Mariano?
How old are you, Mariano?
Caption 69, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 6Play Caption
To answer this question, we use the verb tener años, which literally means "to have years," inserting the correct number of years between these two words. This is the Spanish equivalent of "being (a certain number) of years old." Let's take a look:
Tengo dieciséis años.
I'm sixteen years old.
Caption 7, Cleer Entrevista a LilaPlay Caption
If you'd like to learn or refresh your Spanish numbers, check out the lesson The Numbers from One to One Hundred in Spanish.
In this caption, you will hear both the question and answer to this question.
¿Y eres casado o soltero? Estoy casado con una mujer italiana de Nápoles.
And are you married or single? I'm married to an Italian woman from Naples.
Captions 8-9, Carlos y Xavi Part 2 Ustedes y VosotrosPlay Caption
You might notice that in the example above, the first speaker uses the verb ser, saying "¿Y eres casado...?" instead of "¿Y estás casado?" while the second speaker uses the verb estar to answer. Although the adjective casado/a (married) is traditionally used with the verb estar, you might hear it used with ser in some Spanish-speaking regions. For more on the nuances of these two verbs, check out Ser vs. Estar- Yo Soy and Ser vs. Estar- Yo Estoy.
We ask both of these questions with the Spanish verb tener (to have), which is conjugated as tiene with usted and tienes with tú. Let's hear how to ask these two questions with tú:
¿Tienes hijos? -No.
Do you have children? -No.
Caption 87, Adícora, Venezuela El tatuaje de RosanaPlay Caption
¿Tienes hermanos o hermanas?
Do you have brothers or sisters?
Caption 5, Carlos y Xavi Part 2 Ustedes y VosotrosPlay Caption
It is worth noting that, as the plural masculine noun los hermanos could refer to either just "brothers" or to both "brothers and sisters" or "siblings," you could simply say "¿Tienes hermanos?" when asking if someone has brothers and/or sisters. Similarly, los hijos could specifically mean "sons" or include both male and female "children." The singular and plural feminine nouns la(s) hermana(s) and la(s) hijas, on the other hand, refer to specifically female "sister(s)" and "daughter(s)." With that in mind, let's look at some potential answers to these questions:
Yo tengo dos hijos pequeños y...
I have two small children, and...
Caption 66, El Aula Azul Un día de surfPlay Caption
Y, bueno, eh... tengo una hija de ocho años, ya sabéis.
And, well, um... I have an eight-year-old daughter, you already know.
Caption 26, Clase Aula Azul La segunda condicional - Part 1Play Caption
Sí, tengo una hermana más pequeña que tiene tres años menos.
Yes, I have a younger sister who is three years younger.
Caption 6, Carlos y Xavi Part 2 Ustedes y VosotrosPlay Caption
Let's move on to our last common question when getting to know someone in Spanish.
Here are some possible ways to broach the topic of what people like to do when they aren't working.
¿qué te gusta hacer?
what do you like to do?
Caption 24, Cleer Entrevista a LilaPlay Caption
¿Qué cosas te gusta hacer en tu tiempo libre?
What do you like to do in your free time?Play Caption
Or, you could simply say: "¿Qué te gusta hacer en tu tiempo libre?" A good formula for answering what you like to do is to say (a mí) me gusta (I like) or (a mí) me encanta (I love) plus a verb in the infinitive. Let's see some examples:
Me gusta salir a rumbear...
I like to go out dancing...
Caption 15, Zoraida Lo que gusta hacerPlay Caption
Pues, me gusta escuchar música, eh... pintar, y me gusta viajar mucho.
Well, I like to listen to music, um... paint, and I like to travel a lot.
Captions 25-26, Cleer Entrevista a LilaPlay Caption
y me encanta ir a la playa con mis amigos.
and I love going to the beach with my friends.
Caption 39, Clara y Cristina SaludarPlay Caption
We hope that this lesson has helped you learn some basic questions/answers for getting to know someone and telling them about yourself. Can you think of any other preliminary question you would like to learn to ask or answer in Spanish? Feel free to let us know with your suggestions and comments.
Do you know how to introduce yourself in Spanish? With just a few key words and phrases, you can feel comfortable doing so in no time!
We can break up introducing yourself in Spanish into a few key categories that correspond to how we would introduce ourselves in English. Let's take a look:
Like in English, you would often begin introducing yourself in Spanish by saying hello to the person:
Caption 66, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 16Play Caption
This might stand alone or go with some other very common greetings in Spanish:
Caption 2, Amaya La historia de LukasPlay Caption
Note that in some countries, like Argentina, it is more common to hear the singular version, Buen día. If it's later in the day (from about noon to sunset), you'd more likely hear Buenas tardes (Good afternoon/evening):
Caption 31, Cita médica La cita médica de Cleer - Part 1Play Caption
And later than that, you might hear Buenas noches (literally "good night"). Note that in contrast to "Good night" in English, Buenas noches can be used as a greeting rather than just to send someone off to bed or say goodbye. That said, "Good evening" might be a more appropriate translation in that context.
Muy buenas noches, bienvenida. -Hola, buenas noches.
Good evening, welcome. -Hello, good evening.Play Caption
Again as in English, when introducing yourself in Spanish, it is common to ask the person with whom you are speaking how they are. As there are many ways to do this, we'll give you a just a few options.
¿Cómo está usted?
How are you?
Caption 25, Cleer y Lida Saludar en españolPlay Captio
Of course, because there are several ways to say "you" in Spanish (usted is the singular, more formal form), this phrase might be adjusted to "¿Cómo estás tú?" or "¿Cómo estás vos?" to address one person informally. And while there are additional ways to say "you" to more than one person in Spanish, for the purposes of today's lesson, we will stick to the singular forms. Let's see another way to say "How are you?"
¿Y cómo te va?
And how are you?
Caption 38, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 8 - Part 1Play Caption
The more formal alternative with usted would be: "¿Y cómo le va (a usted)?" However, regardless of the formality of the situation or to how many people you are speaking, you can always use the following simple phrase:
Hola, ¿qué tal?
Hello, how are you?
Caption 1, Amaya Apertura del refugioPlay Caption
As the person to whom you are speaking will most likely respond by asking you how you are, we should give you some common answers to the aforementioned questions. Let's start with an answer to "¿Cómo está(s)?"
Muy bien, ¿y tú?
Very well, and you?
Caption 17, Español para principiantes Saludos y encuentrosPlay Caption
If you are addressing one another with usted, you would instead say "¿y usted?"
In contrast, if someone asks you '¿Cómo te/le va?" you might answer: "Bien, ¿y a ti?" or "Bien, ¿y a usted?"
Although bien (well) or muy bien (very well) are by far the most common ways to answer the question of how you are, particularly when meeting someone for the first time, if you are interested in learning more about ways to say you are just OK, we recommend this lesson entitled ¿Qué tal? Ni bien ni mal (How Are You? Neither Good Nor Bad).
Now that we have gotten some formalities out of the way, it's time to say your name! Here are three common ways to do so:
Yo me llamo Lida.
My name is Lida.
Caption 12, Cleer y Lida Saludar en españolPlay Caption
Mi nombre es Diego Velázquez.
My name is Diego Velázquez.
Caption 9, Adícora, Venezuela Los fisioterapeutasPlay Caption
Hola, yo soy Cleer.
Hello, I'm Cleer.
Caption 1, Recetas de cocina Arepas colombianasPlay Caption
And now, the moment has arrived to ask the other person their name:
¿Y cómo te llamas tú?
And, what's your name?
Caption 11, Cleer y Lida Saludar en españolPlay Caption
¿Cómo se llama usted?
What is your name?
Caption 97, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 10Play Caption
¿Cuál es tu nombre?
What's your name?
Caption 10, Cleer y Lida Llegando a una nueva ciudadPlay Caption
The usted form is: "¿Cuál es su nombre?"
When introducing yourself in Spanish, as in English, you should probably say something along the lines of "Nice to meet you." Here are several options:
Mucho gusto, Samuel.
Nice to meet you, Samuel.Play Caption
Un placer, Mónica,
A pleasure, Monica,Play Caption
Hola, guapa. -Hola. -Encantada. -Encantada de conocerte.
Hello, beautiful. -Hello. -[A] pleasure. -[A] pleasure to meet you.
Caption 8, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 2Play Caption
And, if someone says one of those things to you, you might respond by saying "Igualmente" or "Yo también" (Me too).
Hola Cristóbal, encantada. -Igualmente.
Hello, Cristobal. Pleased [to meet you]. -Me too.
Caption 35, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 2Play Caption
If you'd like to hear many of these phrases in the context of both informal and formal conversations, we recommend the video Saludar en español (Greeting in Spanish). We hope you have enjoyed this lesson on how to introduce yourself in Spanish, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
Let's talk about hobbies in Spanish! Hobbies, or pursuits in which one engages in his or her tiempo libre (free time), can range from things you do, to things you study, to things you collect... and more!
There are three main ways to say "hobby" in Spanish, one of which is the English word "hobby":
Pues, a mí me encanta bailar. Ese es mi hobby favorito. -OK,
Well, I love to dance. That is my favorite hobby. -OK,
Captions 7-8, Cleer HobbiesPlay Caption
The Spanish word pasatiempo is another way to say "hobby." You might remember it as being similar to the English word "pastime":
Ya ustedes... Todo mundo sabe qué es béisbol. Pero no el profesional, solamente como pasatiempo.
You already... Everybody knows what baseball is. But, not the professional [kind], just as a hobby.
Captions 50-51, Peluquería La Percha FélixPlay Caption
La afición is yet another way to say "hobby" in Spanish:
Vale... o sea que habéis conseguido transformar vuestra afición en vuestra profesión, ¿no?
OK... in other words, you guys have managed to transform your hobby into your profession, right?
Caption 72, Novalima Entrevista - Part 2Play Caption
Now that you know how to say "hobby" in Spanish, we'll introduce you to the Spanish words for a multitude of different pastimes you might take up with examples from our Spanish video library. Since some internet hobby lists include as many as 1,001 hobbies, we narrowed it down to Yabla's Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish.
Also known as el teatro (theater), la actuación (acting) could be a fun thing to study, perhaps culminating in participation in una obra de teatro (a play). The verb associated with la actuación is actuar (to act).
En esta universidad afortunadamente tenemos grandes talleres de teatro, de actuación, de música
At this university, fortunately, we have big workshops for theater, acting, music,
Captions 14-15, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana AnaPlay Caption
Estudiar astrología (studying astrology) involves the observation of celestial bodies like the sun (el sol), the moon (la luna), the stars (las estrellas), and the planets (los planetas) for the purpose of predicting traits or events.
porque el fin último de la astrología es ser una herramienta de autoconocimiento.
because the ultimate goal of astrology is to be a tool for self-knowledge.
Caption 18, Conversaciones con Luis AstrologíaPlay Caption
La panadería (baking) might be a fun (and tasty) pursuit! Alternative Spanish words for "baking" in Spanish include la repostería and el horneado, while the verb hornear means "to bake."
Estudié panadería profesional y pastelería moderna en dos universidades de allá.
I studied professional baking and modern pastry making in two universities there.
Caption 6, Misión Chef 2 - Pruebas - Part 3Play Caption
If you love baking, Yabla videos about baking such delectable dishes as Colombian buñuelos, Leche asada (also from Colombia), Ecuadorian Chaqui Tanda, or even a good old chocolate cake, might be right up your alley.
Who doesn't love a good ganga (bargain)? If you find them particularly intriguing, la búsqueda de gangas (or "bargain hunting," which could also be conveyed with the verb buscar gangas) might be right for you!
Los ricos también buscan gangas
Rich people also hunt for bargains
Caption 13, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 1Play Caption
The above-cited caption is from a series entitled Gangas para ricos (Bargains for Rich People).
Many people find realizar observación de aves (the verb for "birdwatching") to be an interesting and educational activity to do al aire libre (outdoors).
La Unidad Operativa de Punta Norte, que es por excelencia, bueno, un punto de observación de aves
The Operational Unit of Punta Norte, which is, par excellence, well, a birdwatching point
Captions 24-25, Perdidos en la Patagonia Península ValdésPlay Caption
Popular mundialmente (worldwide), el ajedrez (chess) is both a fun and cerebral pastime. You can describe the action of "playing chess" with the verb jugar al ajedrez.
Este... mis pasatiempos, me fascina lo que es el ajedrez.
Um... my hobbies, I love chess.Play Caption
The verbs reunir and coleccionar both mean "to collect" while una colección refers to "a collection" of some artículo (item). Popular items to collect include las camisetas (t-shirts), los sellos (stamps), las tazas (mugs), los postales (postcards), las tarjetas de beisbol (baseball cards), and even los coches (cars), although, unless they are carros de juguete (toy cars), the latter is most probably less accessible to the masses!
Él ha conseguido reunir una gran variedad de modelos de las grandes marcas de automóvil:
He has managed to collect a great variety of models from the big automobile brands:
Captions 11-12, Málaga Museo del automóvilPlay Caption
A "cocktail" hobby might include simply tasting (probar) exotic drinks at various coctelerías (cocktail bars) or, alternatively, practicing la coctelería (which also means "bartending") or la mixología (mixology), the art of making alcoholic beverages oneself!
Mezclamos el hielo en todos nuestros cócteles y mucha azúcar.
We mix the ice in all our cocktails and a lot of sugar.
Caption 36, Otavalo Restaurante 'Carbón de Palo'Play Caption
You might kick off your cocktail hobby by making this simple recipe for Ponche Navideño (eggnog, or literally "Christmas Punch").
La cocina is the noun for "cooking" while the verb cocinar means "to cook."
Y también me gusta mucho cocinar. Ahora mismo, voy a un curso de cocina,
And also I really like to cook. Right now, I'm going to a cooking class,
Captions 37-38, Marta Se presentaPlay Caption
For cooking aficionados, Yabla has many tasty recipe ideas, including Spanish crema de broccoli, Colombian pollo sudado, and Venezuelan arepas, just to name a few. You can also delve deeper into Spanish cuisine with the series La Cocina de María (María's Kitchen), while Misión Chef (Mission Chef) takes you behind the scenes of a Mexican cooking competition for underprivileged kids.
"Cycling" or "biking" are known as el ciclismo in Spanish, while the verbs to describe this action range from practicar ciclismo (literally "to practice cycling") to andar/montar en bici ("to bike" or "ride a bike"). Bici is, of course, short for la bicicleta (the bicycle).
De por sí el ciclismo es un... es un deporte de.... del pueblo,
In itself, cycling is a... is a sport of... of the people,
Caption 34, Semilleros Escarabajos Chapter 2 - Part 1Play Caption
To glean more insight into the world of professional cycling, we recommend the above-referenced series entitled Semilleros Escarabajos from Colombia, where cycling is considered by many to be the national sport.
El baile is the noun for "dance," and bailar (to dance) is probably one of the first verbs you learned when studying Spanish. Dancing provides a creative outlet as well as buen ejercicio (good exercise).
Me encanta bailar,
I love to dance,Play Caption
Verbs like salir a comer, salir a cenar, or comer afuera describe the popular hobby of "dining out" or "going out to eat" at restaurants, enabling one to try una variedad (a variety) of cocinas (cuisines).
¿Vamos a salir a comer, señor Urrutia?
Are we going to go out to eat, Mister Urrutia?Play Caption
The hobby known as el dibujo (drawing/sketching) has been associated with improved self-confidence and mental health. The verb dibujar means "to draw," while the verbs bosquejar and bocetar mean "to sketch."
eh... primero que todo le doy gracias a Dios por haberme dado esta capacidad de expresión que es el dibujo.
um... first of all, I give thanks to God for having given me this capacity for expression, which is drawing.
Captions 75-77, Bucaramanga, Colombia Pintor callejeroPlay Caption
If drawing interests you, you might try this video about Mexican illustrator Antonio Vargas.
This hobby might entail the frequent viewing of películas (movies/films) at el cine (the movie theater), studying la historia del cine (the history of film/cinema), or perhaps even "filmmaking" (which can also be known as el cine or el rodaje) yourself.
y me encanta ver películas en el cine.
and I love watching movies at the movie theater.Play Caption
Many people are passionate about estudiar geografía (studying geography), which examines both physical locations on la Tierra (Earth) and the relationship between people and their sociedades (societies).
Pero me di cuenta que cuando uno estudia geografía y estudia el mundo, en realidad eso es un reflejo de nuestra mente.
But I realized that when one studies geography and studies the world, that is actually a reflection of our minds.
Captions 50-51, Outward Bound DannyPlay Caption
"Gardening" can be known as la jardinería or el cuidado de un jardín (literally "the care of a garden"). Verbs for "to garden" include cuidar un jardín, cultivar, or plantar.
Seguro que a muchas de vosotras y vosotros os gusta la jardinería
Surely many of you like gardening
Caption 2, Fermín La plumeria - Part 1Play Caption
Gardening fans might enjoy Yabla host Fermín's video on an interesting flower called la plumeria.
We don't think you'll have a hard time remembering how to say "golf" in Spanish: el golf. Jugar al golf, on the other hand, means "to play golf."
son alumnos del instituto José Cadalzo de San Roque y son unos apasionados por el golf.
they are students from the José Cadalzo de San Roque Institute and they are golf enthusiasts.
Captions 4-5, Club de las ideas Biodiesel - Part 1Play Caption
If golfing is your cup of tea, try the video Pasión por el golf (Passion for Golf).
While the nouns la equitación and la cabalgata mean "horseback riding," the verb montar a caballo means "to ride a horse."
Recuerda también que tenemos cursos de música y cursos de equitación,
Also remember that we have music courses and horseback riding courses,
Captions 27-28, El Aula Azul Conversación: Los cursos de español - Part 1Play Caption
This clip references horseback riding as one of the many activities available in addition to learning Spanish at El Aula Azul language school in San Sebastián, Spain.
"Hiking" in Spanish is known as el senderismo or el excursionismo. "To hike" or "take a hike" might be described with verbs like practicar senderismo/excursionismo, hacer una caminata or simply subir.
justo aquí encima de mí, está el Monte Ulía, que es perfecto para practicar senderismo,
right here above me, is Monte Ulía [Mount Ulía], which is perfect for hiking
Captions 15-17, El Aula Azul Barrio de GrosPlay Caption
If you are looking for a more exotic hobby, el malabar (a.k.a. malabarismo, or "juggling") could be your thing! Verbs that mean "to juggle" include hacer malabares and hacer juegos malabares.
y ya entramos en el malabar.
and then we get into juggling.
Caption 16, Juan Sánchez Clase de circoPlay Caption
"Kitesurfing" is often known as el kitesurfing, el kitesurf, or simply el kite in Spanish, and the action is hacer kitesurf, etc.
Estamos en una escuela de kite.
We're at a kitesurfing school.Play Caption
Kitesurfing may not be available everywhere, but Yabla has had the opportunity to travel to a prime kitsurfing location, Adícora, Venezuela, and made a lot of videos related to this topic! You might take a look at Darío y el kitesurfing, La Posada Sea Club, and Adícora Kite Club, just to name a few.
We're sure your friends will be delighted with all of the prendas (garments) and other manualidades (crafts) you make them when you take up "knitting," which can be known in Spanish by names such as el tejido, el punto, and la calceta. The action of knitting is commonly called tejer or hacer punto.
Nosotros no hacemos solamente un tejido sino hacemos en varias formas de tejido.
We don't just do one [kind of] knitting, but rather do various types of knitting.
Caption 23, Otavalo Jorge, creador de atrapasueñosPlay Caption
As you already know, aprender un idioma (the verb for "learning a language," while el aprendizaje is the noun) can be both challenging and rewarding!
Hola, y bienvenido a Yabla español, el programa revolucionario para el aprendizaje de español.
Hello, and welcome to Yabla Spanish, the revolutionary program for the learning of Spanish.
Captions 1-2, Spanish INTRO KarolaPlay Caption
We hope that Yabla is helping your own language journey, and also recommend our sister site Go Spanish by Yabla to reinforce what you are learning with small group or private classes.
El maquillaje is also an increasingly popular hobby for which one can find many online tutorials. The action of applying makeup or "making (someone) up" is called maquillar while applying makeup to oneself is expressed with the reflexive verb maquillarse.
y hoy voy a maquillar a mi amiga, Catalina, que necesita un maquillaje para una entrevista.
and today I am going to make up my friend, Catalina, who needs a makeup application for an interview.
Captions 9-10, Maquillaje Con Cata y CleerPlay Caption
There are a variety of different técnicas (techniques) with which one can meditar (to meditate), some of which are done in conjunction with movement such as yoga or tai chi, which is known as "meditation in motion."
Con la meditación, ejercitamos nuestra capacidad de permanecer abiertos,
With meditation, we exercise our capacity to remain open,
Captions 21-23, Ana Carolina La meditaciónPlay Caption
Get your creative juices flowing with la pintura, which can refer generally to the art of "painting" or the "paint" itself. The verb pintar means "to paint."
Entonces, este... yo estaba pintando en esa época
So, then... I was painting at that time
Caption 8, Arturo Vega Entrevista - Part 3Play Caption
With the advent of smart phones that take higher quality photos all the time and the opportunity to filter and display photos on popular social media sites, it seems that more and more people are becoming interested in la fotografía (photography). The people who take photos are known as fogógrafos/as (photographers), and the action of taking photos is expressed with sacar or tomar fotos.
Si te gusta la fotografía, estoy seguro de que disfrutarás adentrándote por sus callejuelas estrechas,
If you like photography, I'm sure you'll enjoy losing yourself in its narrow streets,
Captions 30-31, Viajando con Fermín Sevilla - Part 1Play Caption
La poesía (poetry) fascinates many people, whether it entails simply reading it (leer poesía) or writing it oneself (escribir poesía).
¿Escribes poesía? -Sí.
You write poetry? -Yes.
Caption 69, Karla e Isabel PalabrasPlay Caption
El pole dance (pole dancing) is an incredibly aerobic activity that is no longer limited to just strip clubs!
Vengo a compartir con ustedes hoy un tema sumamente interesante: los beneficios del pole dance.
I've come to share with you today an extremely interesting topic: the benefits of pole dancing.
Captions 2-4, Melyna Pole dancePlay Caption
Apparently, pole dancing has enjoyed particular popularity in Ecuador in recent days, as Melyna shares with us in her video entitled Pole dance.
In the popular series Los Años Maravillosos (the Colombian version of The Wonder Years), Kevin's mom finds an escape from her everyday life by signing up for una clase de cerámica (a pottery class), and maybe you can too!
Es que me inscribí en el curso de cerámica de la parroquia.
It's just that I enrolled in the church's pottery class.
Caption 20, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 12 - Part 3Play Caption
Tocar un instrumento means "to play" or "playing an instrument."
y que quería aprender a tocar la guitarra
and that I wanted to learn to play the guitar
Caption 18, Luis Guitarra Influencias musicales - Part 1Play Caption
To learn the names of musical instruments you might play in Spanish, try Spanish singer-songwriter Luis Guitarra's Instrumentos musicales or Karla e Isabel- Instrumentos musicales. Alternatively, the Curso de guitarra (Guitar Course) series can teach you how to play some simple chords and tunes.
The pastime "reading" is most typically described by the verb leer (to read). Reading is, of course, a great hobby for improving one's vocabulario (vocabulary) as well as opening one's mente (mind).
Sobre mis "hobbies", por ejemplo, me gusta mucho leer.
About my hobbies, for example, I love reading.
Caption 17, Burgos María de los ÁngelesPlay Caption
Interestingly, the word correr can be both a noun meaning "running" and a verb meaning "to run." Taken straight from English, el jogging is also used to talk about this hobby that relieves stress and builds endurance.
En el próximo febrero quince, voy a correr la maratón de Austin, Texas,
Next February fifteenth, I'm going to run the marathon in Austin, Texas,
Captions 28-29, Cerro de Ancón EntrenamientoPlay Caption
El fútbol is an internationally popular deporte (sport) with very enthusiastic fanáticos (fans), whether they prefer to simply watch los partidos de fútbol (soccer matches) or jugar al fútbol (play soccer) themselves.
Los viernes, juego al fútbol con mis amigas.
On Fridays, I play soccer with my friends.
Caption 21, Ariana Mi SemanaPlay Caption
"Surfing" is called el surf in Spanish, and the verb for "to surf" is surfear.
Una de mis grandes aficiones desde niña es el surf,
One of my big hobbies since I was a little girl is surfing,
Caption 4, Ana Teresa Yoga y surfPlay Caption
La natación is an excellent, low-impact way to get exercise, which many find muy relajante (very relaxing). The verb nadar means to "swim."
Para nosotros, que amamos este deporte, la natación es nuestro estilo de vida.
For us, who love this sport, swimming is our lifestyle.
Captions 24-25, Víctor en Caracas La nataciónPlay Caption
El tenis (tennis) could be an exhilarating and physically-challenging deporte (sport) to try. Jugar al tenis means "to play tennis."
Me gusta mucho jugar al tenis.
I really like to play tennis.
Caption 21, Marta Se presentaPlay Caption
Traveling is known by the verb that means "to travel," viajar, whereas the noun los viajes refers to one's "travels" or "trips." We agree with the sentiment expressed in the following clip:
y obviamente que viajar siempre viene bien
and obviously traveling always does one good
Caption 47, GoSpanish Entrevista con María SolPlay Caption
The wine tasting hobby is often described with the verbs catar vinos or probar vinos. A wine tasting event, on the other hand, is known as una cata de vinos or una degustación de vinos.
Lo primero que vamos a hacer cuando vamos a probar un vino, es mirar el color.
The first thing we're going to do when we're going to taste a wine is to look at the color.
Captions 32-33, Montserrat Cata de vinos - Part 1Play Caption
We doubt you'll have trouble remembering the name for "yoga" in Spanish since it is the same as in English with a masculine article: el yoga. Practicar yoga (to practice yoga) is the action.
y mucha gente no sabe todo lo que hay detrás del yoga, que no es solamente un ejercicio físico,
and many people don't know everything there is behind yoga, which isn't just a physical exercise,
Captions 9-11, Ana Teresa Introducción al yogaPlay Caption
To learn more about the many beneficios (benefits) of this practice, tanto físicos como espirituales (both physical and spiritual), we offer you this yoga series with Ana Teresa as well as the series Bienestar con Elizabeth (Well-being with Elizabeth) with whom you can practice along! Meanwhile, Rosa introduces to a type of yoga you may or may not be familiar with: Yoga con burros (Yoga with Donkeys)!
We hope you've enjoyed this lesson on Yabla's Top 40 Hobbies in Spanish, and perhaps gotten inspired to take up something new! For more on the general topic of hobbies, check out Hobbies by Cleer or Nuestros hobbies (Our Hobbies) by Karla and Isabel, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments!
Let's talk about the various types of fruits in Spanish. Do you know how to say the names of fruits like "apple" or "peach" in Spanish? If you don't know, don't worry! In this lesson, we will find out how to spell and say the names of different fruits in Spanish. Of course, we can't talk about all of the fruits of the world, but we will cover many of the most popular ones with the following list of fruits in Spanish and English. Let's take a look!
Una manzana roja.
A red apple.
Caption 32, Cleer y Lida PicnicPlay Caption
La palabra "pera" tiene dos sílabas:
The word "pera" [pear] has two syllables:
Caption 11, Lara enseña Tildes - Part 1Play Caption
Lo único que, en vez de llevar mermelada de albaricoque,
The only one that, instead of having inside apricot jam,
Caption 29, Horno San Onofre El ChocolatePlay Caption
A mí me recuerda... como si fuese una cereza.
It reminds me... as if it were a cherry.
Caption 58, Amaya Cata de vinosPlay Caption
Me volvió a gustar la compota de durazno
I started liking peach baby food again
Caption 4, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 7 - Part 1Play Caption
It is important to say that another Spanish term for the word "peach" is melocotón. This term is the prevalent term in Spain:
Por ejemplo con melocotón.
For example with peach.
Caption 53, Recetas TortillaPlay Caption
una lima, y se utilizan mucho para una bebida
a lime, and are used a lot for a drink
Caption 21, Otavalo Julia nos muestra las verdurasPlay Caption
con un poco de sal y limón
with a bit of salt and lemon
Caption 14, Ana Carolina Receta para una picadaPlay Caption
Aquí están las mandarinas.
Here are tangerines.Play Caption
saben a naranja.
taste like orange.
Caption 34, Ariana Cita médicaPlay Caption
Ahora le vamos a poner un poquito de melón.
Now we're going to add a little melon.
Caption 19, Desayuno Puerto Escondido FrutasPlay Caption
Le vamos a poner... sandía,
We're going to put... watermelon,
Caption 3, Desayuno Puerto Escondido FrutasPlay Caption
Y me comí un heladito de fresa porque me daba antojos.
And I ate a strawberry ice cream because I was craving it.Play Caption
lleva una mermelada natural de frambuesa
it has inside an organic raspberry jam
Caption 30, Horno San Onofre El ChocolatePlay Caption
La mora es mi fruta favorita.
The blackberry is my favorite fruit.Play Caption
Estas son las uvas.
These are grapes.Play Caption
Esto es el banano o plátano.
This is the banana or plantain.Play Caption
As you saw in the video clip, this fruit is also known in some regions as the plátano. However, keep in mind that the word plátano can also refer to the plantain:
Por último, procedemos a freír el tradicional plátano venezolano,
Lastly, we proceed to fry the traditional Venezuelan plantains,
Caption 75, Recetas de cocina Pabellón criolloPlay Caption
El agua de coco es muy nutritiva y además te calma mucho la sed.
Coconut water is very nutritious and plus it quenches your thirst a lot.Play Caption
Esta es una granadilla.
This is a passion fruit.Play Caption
Se llama guanábana
It's called soursopPlay Caption
Esto se llama guayaba.
This is called guava.Play Caption
Este es el mango.
This is mango.Play Caption
Son unas papayas chiquitas
They are small papayasPlay Caption
piña en trocitos,
chunks of pineapple,
Caption 13, Cleer y Lida El regreso de LidaPlay Caption
In addition to all of the fruits we have mentioned, we would like to add two more fruits that are often not treated as such:
Vamos a conocer un poco sobre la historia del aguacate y sus beneficios.
We're going to find out a bit about the history of the avocado and its benefits.
Caption 3, Melyna El aguacatePlay Caption
Por lo tanto, botánicamente hablando, el tomate es una fruta,
Therefore, botanically speaking, the tomato is a fruit
Captions 33-34, Fermín Ensalada de tomatePlay Caption
Now that we have seen how to write and pronounce the names of many important fruits in Spanish, we wanted to leave you with the following quick reference list of fruits in Spanish and English:
granadilla (passion fruit)
And that's all for this lesson. Before we go, we invite you to answer the following question: ¿Cuál es tu fruta preferida? We hope you've enjoyed this lesson, and we'd love for you to send us your suggestions and comments. ¡Hasta la próxima!
Do you know how many vowels are in the Spanish alphabet? Are you able to pronounce the Spanish vowels? Do you know what strong and weak vowels are? Have you seen Spanish vowels with accents? Let's get some answers to these questions and more!
The short answer is five! The following are the five Spanish vowels:
Do you want to hear how to pronounce the vowels in Spanish? Let's listen to our friend Sol from GoSpanish.Com:
En español, tenemos cinco vocales: "a", "e", "i", "o", "u".
In Spanish, we have five vowels: "a," "e," "i," "o," "u."
Captions 2-7, Español para principiantes Las vocalesPlay Caption
Now that we know how many vowels there are in the Spanish alphabet and how to pronounce them, it is important to mention that these five vowels can be divided into two main groups. Let's take a closer look.
In Spanish, strong vowels are called vocales abiertas (literally "open vowels") because when you say them, your tongue stays in the lower part of your mouth, and the oral cavity must expand. These vowels are:
On the contrary, weak vowels are known in Spanish as vocales cerradas ("closed vowels") because when you pronounce them, your tongue stays closer to the roof of your mouth, and the oral cavity need not expand. These vowels are:
Differentiating between strong and weak vowels will help you to improve your understanding of how to divide words into syllables. In fact, when doing so, we invite you to keep in mind the following basic rules:
* Strong vowel + strong vowel together = Two syllables
Una boa, una anaconda, ¡ay no!
A boa, an anaconda, oh, no!Play Caption
The word boa has two syllables: bo-a.
* Weak vowel + unsetressed weak vowel together = One syllable
Detrás de mí podemos observar la ciudad antigua
Behind me, we can observe the old city
Caption 11, Ciudad de Panamá Denisse introduce la ciudadPlay Caption
Notice how the i and the u of the word ciudad belong to the same syllable: ciu-dad.
* Strong vowel + unstressed weak vowel = one syllable
toda esa deuda acumulada
all that accumulated debt
Caption 10, Luis Guitarra Todo es de todos - Part 1Play Caption
Notice how the e and the u of the word deuda are both in the same syllable: deu-da.
Keep in mind, however, that when a stressed weak vowel is next to another type of vowel, the two vowels must be separated into two different syllables:
Y en invierno suele hacer mucho frío.
An in winter it tends to be very cold.
Caption 15, Clara explica El tiempo - Part 1Play Caption
The word frío has a stressed weak vowel next to a strong vowel. This combination creates a "hiatus," or break between two consecutive vowels that are not in the same syllable. For this reason, the word frío has two syllables: frí-o. Words like frío that contain accented vowels are quite common in Spanish.
Finally, we would like to wrap up this lesson about the vowels in Spanish with a very simple question: Do you know any Spanish word that contains all of the five vowels? Although there are many, check out the following clip to see one of them in action:
La palabra más larga es murciélago. ¿Por qué? Pues porque tiene las cinco vocales dentro de la palabra.
The longest word is bat. Why? Well because it has the five vowels within the word.
Captions 43-45, Karla e Isabel PalabrasPlay Caption
And that's all for this lesson. We hope you've enjoyed learning about the Spanish vowels, and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!
The Spanish future tense is one of the most straightforward tenses in Spanish, both in terms of knowing when to use it and how to conjugate it. Let's take a closer look at this tense.
The future tense in Spanish corresponds to the English construction with "will" plus a verb and is used to talk about actions that are slated to happen in the future or that someone has the intention to carry out. Simple English examples of this concept include: "Tomorrow, I will go to the store," or "Next week, it will rain." With this in mind, let's examine several examples of the future tense in Spanish:
y hoy les hablaré de una de mis pasiones:
and today, I'll talk to you about one of my passions:
Caption 4, Ana Carolina La meditaciónPlay Caption
Yo creo que esto lo venderemos súper bien.
I think we'll sell this one really well.
Caption 44, Santuario para burros Tienda solidariaPlay Caption
El botón [sic] la ayudará con su equipaje y lo subirá en un par de minutos a la habitación.
The porter will help you with your luggage and will take it up to the room in a couple of minutes.
Captions 61-62, Cleer y Lida Recepción de hotelPlay Caption
Note that as English "will" constructions are often expressed with contractions (the personal pronoun plus apostrophe double l, such as "I'll," "we'll," etc.), many Spanish future tense verbs can be translated to English in this less formal fashion.
Conjugating most verbs in the future tense in Spanish is quite simple. You just take the verb's infinitive ("to" form) in its entirety and add the corresponding future tense ending. So, using the verbs in our previous examples, we'd start with their infinitive forms: hablar (to talk), vender (to sell), ayudar (to help), and subir (to take up). You will note that these infinitive verbs fall into all three infinitive verb categories: -ar, -er, and -ir.
Step two of the process of conjugating Spanish future tense verbs is to memorize the quite simple endings that correspond to their personal pronouns, which are as follows:
Armed with this information, let's conjugate some future tense verbs using different verbs and personal pronouns than the examples above.
1. Suppose we want to say that more than one person "will see" something (with the personal pronoun ustedes, or plural "you"). We would take the infinitive verb ver (to see) and add the appropriate ending (-án) to get verán:
Mañana ustedes verán si nos... si nos medimos a ese, a ese reto.
Tomorrow you guys will see if we... if we measure up to that, to that challenge.
Captions 36-37, Festivaliando Mono Núñez - Part 13Play Caption
2. Now, let's imagine that you want to tell more than one person in a familiar environment what they'll "need." Oh— and you're in Spain, where the personal pronouns vosotros/as are the way to address more than one person as "you" informally. We'd take the verb for "to need" (necesitar) and the corresponding ending -éis to get necesitaréis:
Para empezar a hacer la tortilla española, necesitaréis los siguientes ingredientes:
To start to make the Spanish tortilla, you'll need the following ingredients:
Captions 8-9, Clara cocina Una tortilla españolaPlay Caption
3. And finally, what if you would like to say with the tú (informal "you") form to someone what he or she "will discover"? You'd start with the verb descubrir (to discover) and add the -ás ending that goes with tú to get descubrirás:
Pronto lo descubrirás
Soon you'll discover it
Caption 68, X6 1 - La banda - Part 2Play Caption
As with all Spanish verb tenses, there are some irregular verbs in the future tense in Spanish, many of which are extremely common. That said, it would behoove you to memorize the following stems, which are used in lieu of these verbs' infinitives to conjugate the "top twelve" irregular future tense verbs in Spanish:
|caber (to fit):||cabr-|
|decir (to tell):||dir-|
|haber (to have/be):||habr-|
|hacer (to make/do):||har-|
|poder (to be able):||podr-|
|poner (to put):||pondr-|
|querer (to want):||querr-|
|saber (to know):||sabr-|
|salir (to leave):||saldr-|
|tener (to have):||tendr-|
|valer (to be worth):||valdr-|
|venir (to come):||vendr-|
Now, let's conjugate a few of these irregular Spanish future tense verbs:
1. How would we express "I'll say" in Spanish? Rather than the infinitive, we'd take the aforementioned stem for the Spanish verb decir, -dir, and add the ending that corresponds with yo (I), or -é, to get diré:
Primero, diré el verbo en infinitivo,
First, I'll say the verb in the infinitive,
Caption 38, Carlos explica El modo imperativo 1: Tú + vosPlay Caption
2. How would we say "you'll have" in Spanish? Take the stem of the irregular verb tener (to have), tendr-, and add the ending for tú (you), -ás, to get: tendrás.
Sí, después de las clases en grupo, tendrás media hora de descanso
Yes, after the group classes, you'll have a half hour breakPlay Caption
3. And finally, what if want to express that "we'll be able" to do something? We'll take podr-, the stem for the verb for "to be able" (poder), and add the ending for nosotros/as, -emos, to come up with podremos:
Con un poco de práctica, podremos aprender estas reglas muy fácilmente.
With a bit of practice, we will be able to learn these rules very easily.Play Caption
Although the translations for Spanish verbs conjugated in the Spanish future tense almost always involve the word "will," the future tense in Spanish can occasionally be used to express doubt or disbelief, and, in such cases, corresponds more closely with the English concepts of "would," "could," "might," or "may." Such cases are typically quite clear from their contexts as inserting the word "will" would seem nonsensical. Let's take a look at a couple of examples:
¿No tendrás unos pesitos para mí?
You wouldn't have a few pesos for me?
Caption 23, Muñeca Brava 8 Trampas - Part 14Play Caption
Favio, ¿dónde estarás?
Favio, where could you be?
Caption 44, Yago 1 La llegada - Part 7Play Caption
Having said that, in the vast majority of the cases you will come across, the future tense in Spanish can be translated with "will."
We hope you've enjoyed this lesson on the future tense in Spanish. If you are interested in verb tenses, we recommend you check out our lessons on all of the Spanish verb tenses, beginning with the indicative verb tenses in Spanish and moving on to the Spanish subjunctive tenses. And, for an even deeper look into the future tense in Spanish with a plethora of example sentences, we recommend you check out this extended lesson by Javi on the future tense in Spanish as well as this lesson on an alternative to the Spanish future tense.
That's all for today! Don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments, and estaremos en contacto (we'll be in touch).
In the course of your Spanish studies, you may have noticed certain patterns that make "predicting" words you may never have even heard before possible in many cases. The focus of today's lesson is one such group of words.
Due to their shared roots in the Latin language, many English words that end with the suffix -ation are cognates (words in different languages that share similar meanings, spellings, and pronunciations) along with their Spanish equivalents that end in a very similar suffix: -ación. Let's look at several, very common examples that you may have heard:
Justo el día de hoy le ha dado un mensaje a la nación
Just today he's given a message to the nation
Caption 23, Yabla en Lima El Centro - Part 2Play Caption
y tenía mucha imaginación.
and he had a lot of imagination.Play Caption
Ehm... ¿Tiene alguna recomendación como de pollo o de pescado?
Um... Do you have any recommendation, like, for chicken or fish?
Captions 32-33, Cata y Cleer En el restaurantePlay Caption
y, por suerte, casi siempre hay mucha participación.
and, luckily, there is almost always a lot of participation.
Caption 78, Viajando con Fermín Asociación ProDunas MarbellaPlay Caption
What can we notice about these words? First off, most of them share virtually identical spellings in English and Spanish but for the replacement of the English suffix -ation with the Spanish -ación. The only minor exception in these examples is the inclusion of a double consonant (m) in the English word "recommendation" that does not appear in la recomendación (this is due to an English spelling rule that we won't delve into in this lesson).
Another noteworthy feature of this class of -ation/-ación cognates (and, in fact, all words that end in -ación in Spanish) is that these nouns' gender in Spanish is feminine.
That said, what if we were at a party, and we wanted to talk about more complex concepts such as "industrialization," "globalization," or "commercialization," and we weren't familiar with the correct Spanish terms? We might try to substitute the Spanish suffix -ación for -ation, just to see what we came up with:
tenemos la... lógicamente, la industrialización,
we have the... logically, industrialization,Play Caption
Y no te quiero hablar de la globalización
And I don't want to talk about globalization
Caption 47, Yago 6 Mentiras - Part 6Play Caption
Es una ruta a nivel turístico bastante joven que está en pleno proceso de comercialización.
It's a rather young route at the touristic level that is in the middle of the process of commercialization.
Captions 30-31, Europa Abierta Taller de escenografía en OlivaresPlay Caption
It worked! You will note that, once again, the spellings and meanings of these terms in Spanish and English are virtually identical except for the slight difference in their suffixes and the addition of the double "m" in "commercialization," again due to English spelling norms. That said, we suggest applying this formula to English words ending in -ation to make an educated guess about their Spanish translations since chances are you'll be right!
Of course, as with all things in life, no formula is perfect, and there are always exceptions. Let's take a look at couple of them:
En los meses de verano, su población llega a multiplicarse por cuatro.
In the summer months, its population gets multiplied by four.
Caption 14, Fuengirola MercadoPlay Caption
Although our formula would take us to the not-quite-correct word populación, we'd venture to guess that a native Spanish speaker would understand perfectly well what you meant by "En los meses de verano, su populación [sic] llega a multiplicarse por cuatro" and just might gently edify you as to the correct term. Let's look at another example:
porque justo salir del aeropuerto ya te encuentras con la estación de autobús.
because just leaving from the airport you come across the bus station right away.
Caption 28, Blanca Cómo moverse en BarcelonaPlay Caption
In this case, the word estación is extremely similar to the English word "station" except for the suffix and the "e" at the beginning, which is due, this time, to a Spanish norm whereby almost all words with an "s" and a consonant at the beginning are preceded by an "e." And again, we're pretty sure that were you to inquire about the whereabouts of la stación de tren, someone would still direct you to the train station!
Although there are some words that end in -ation in English whose translations are even less similar than the aforementioned examples (e.g. translation/traducción, explanation/explicación, etc.), we still suggest that our formula is a great place to start because, even if you aren't perfectly correct in your attempt to morph an -ation word in English into an -ación word in Spanish, chances are you'll be understood and/or corrected, which is how we learn. And, in many, many cases, as we've shown you... you'll be correct!
That's all for today. Have you noticed any other patterns that have helped you to make educated guesses about words in Spanish? Let us know with your suggestions and comments.
Just like any other language, Spanish has adopted many words from different languages and cultures. These words are known in Spanish as extranjerismos, a term that comes from the word extranjero (foreign). That said, let's take a look at some of the most common words in Spanish that come from other languages.
Throughout the Middle Ages, the Spanish language adopted several Arabic words. Let's see some of them:
Soy Miguel Ángel Herrera, alcalde de Genalguacil,
I'm Miguel Angel Herrera, mayor of Genalguacil,
Captions 2-3, Viajando con Fermín Genalguacil - Part 2Play Caption
el álgebra, que estudia las estructuras abstractas,
algebra, which studies abstract structures,
Captions 48-49, Carlos explica Vocabulario de las matemáticas - Part 1Play Caption
con media taza de azúcar
with half a cup of sugar,
Caption 25, Ana Carolina Ponche navideñoPlay Caption
aprendí a tocar la guitarra de una manera diferente
I learned to play the guitar in a different manner
Caption 55, Luis Guitarra Influencias musicales - Part 1Play Caption
saben a naranja.
taste like orange.
Caption 34, Ariana Cita médicaPlay Caption
If you hear the way Ariana pronounces the word naranja, you can notice the strong sound of the letter "j," which is a sound that the Spanish language took from the Arabic language.
Just like in the English language, Spanish has also adopted many words derived from French. Let's see some of the most popular ones:
hasta lo que hoy es conocido como el Bulevar donostiarra,
to what is known today as the "Bulevar donostiarra" [Donostiarra Boulevard]
Caption 28, Días festivos La Tamborrada de San SebastiánPlay Caption
que Amalia se quedó con él y con el chofer, ¿sí?
because Amalia stayed with him and with the driver, right?Play Caption
unas estructuras de poder muy basadas en la élite, en la exclusión.
some power structures [that were] very based on the elite, on exclusion.
Caption 12, Los Tiempos de Pablo Escobar Capítulo 1 - Part 1Play Caption
Many words from various indigenous Latin American cultures were incorporated into the Spanish language after the arrival of the Spaniards to the Americas. The following are some of the most popular words:
Ellos jugaban con una pelota de caucho
They played with a rubber ball
Caption 85, Guillermo el chamán La cosmología de los mayasPlay Caption
guitarra, cuatro, güiro, maraca, bongo,
guitar, cuatro, güiro, maraca, bongo [drum],
Caption 32, Sonido Babel La plena de Puerto RicoPlay Caption
En los Andes se usa mucha papa y muchas cremas.
In the Andes, many potatoes are used and many creams.
Captions 75-76, Recetas de cocina Papa a la HuancaínaPlay Caption
¿Qué es realmente el tomate?
What really is the tomato?
Caption 30, Fermín Ensalada de tomatePlay Caption
Many Italian words made their way into the Spanish language during the Renaissance. Let's check out two of them:
Tomo unos mates en el balcón
I have some servings of mate on the balcony
Caption 7, GoSpanish La rutina diaria de SolPlay Caption
basada en una novela de Paul van Loon
based on a novel by Paul van Loon
Caption 4, Europa Abierta Fucsia la pequeña brujaPlay Caption
And last but not least, we have extranjerismos that come from the English language. Here a few:
que hagan un perímetro por dentro y por fuera del club, vaya.
that they should surround us inside and outside the club, come on.Play Caption
El fútbol es un deporte que fue inventado en Inglaterra
Soccer is a sport that was invented in England
Caption 8, Sergio El fútbol en EspañaPlay Caption
In this translation, we used the word "soccer" instead of "football." However, the Spanish word comes from the original British term "football."
La India Catalina era la líder de la tribu indígena que habitó en la ciudad, anteriormente llamada la Isla Calamarí.
India Catalina was the leader of the indigenous tribe who inhabited the city, previously called Calamari Island.
Captions 26-27, Viajando en Colombia Cartagena en coche - Part 3Play Caption
una ciudad cosmopolita, luminosa y que pone al servicio del turista una amplia variedad de infraestructuras.
a cosmopolitan, luminous city that puts at the service of the tourist a wide variety of infrastructures.
Captions 10-11, Málaga Semana SantaPlay Caption
That's all for this lesson. We hope you enjoyed this list of foreign-influenced words in Spanish. Can you think of any additional extranjerismos in Spanish? Don't forget to let us know with your comments and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!
Today's lesson will take us through some Spanish vocabulary that might come in handy to talk about el otoño (the autumn/fall) and some of the phenomena associated with esta estación (this season).
Let's start by taking a look at a quote from our Yabla Spanish library about el tiempo in autumn, which means "the weather" (rather than "the time") in this context:
Pero en primavera y en otoño, el tiempo es mucho mejor
But in spring and in fall, the weather is much better
Captions 16-17, Clara explica El tiempo - Part 1Play Caption
The fall season is typically characterized by more moderate temperaturas (temperatures) as well as viento (wind) and sometimes lluvia (rain) or niebla (fog) (although there might be some sol (sun) as well!). Let's look at these autumn weather words in context:
Pasame las llaves y llamá un taxi ante' que venga la lluvia.
Give me the keys and call a cab before the rain comes.
Caption 51, Yago 5 La ciudad - Part 9Play Caption
Ya está haciendo un poco de viento; ¿no te parece que hace frío? Sí, a pesar de que hace un hermoso sol.
It's a bit windy now; doesn't it seem like it's cold to you? Yes, in spite of the fact that it's beautifully sunny.
Captions 78-79, Sofy y Caro Entrevistar para un trabajoPlay Caption
Ten cuidado cuando conduzcas hoy porque hay mucha niebla y no se puede ver bien.
Be careful when you drive today because there's a lot of fog, and you can't see well.
Captions 17-18, Clara explica El tiempo - Part 2Play Caption
The videos Clara explica el tiempo - Part 1 and Clara explica el tiempo- Part 2 (Clara Explains the Weather- Parts 1 and 2) as well as Aprendiendo con Karen- El tiempo (Learning with Karen- The Weather) can help you learn even more ways to talk about the weather in Spanish.
While some Spanish-speaking countries like Colombia and Ecuador have less climatic variation due to their proximity to the equator, others experience the autumn season in different months than North America. For example, fall in countries like Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, etc. takes place from approximately marzo a junio (March to June), while Spain experiences the fall in the same months as in the United States: septiembre a diciembre (September through December), as demonstrated in this video about the months and seasons in Spanish by El Aula Azul:
En septiembre, empieza el otoño. En octubre, caen las hojas.
In September, the fall begins. In October, the leaves fall.
Captions 22-23, El Aula Azul Estaciones y MesesPlay Caption
And that brings us to las hojas (the leaves), which, along with their tendency to change colors, dry up, and fall off trees in the autumn, are arguably the most frequently-employed symbol of the fall season.
What other objects are associated with the fall? Let's take a look at a few:
¡Soy un espantapájaros!
I'm a scarecrow!
Caption 95, 75 minutos Gangas para ricos - Part 15Play Caption
¿Cuánto puede costar una cesta así en el mercado?
How much can a basket like this cost at the market?
Caption 121, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 11Play Caption
¿Adivináis qué animal come esta paja y este heno?
Can you guess what animal eats this straw and this hay?
Caption 6, Amaya Donkey DreamlandPlay Caption
Ahora, vamos con nuestro siguiente diseño de calabaza.
Now, we go on to our next pumpkin design.
Caption 64, Manos a la obra Papel picado para Día de muertosPlay Caption
What other foods do we associate with the autumn season?
Es época de quinoa, de la cosecha, de las arvejas tiernas, del maíz, que también ya acabamos de cosechar.
It's the season for quinoa, the harvest, sweet peas, corn, which we also just finished harvesting.
Captions 27-28, Otavalo Proyecto familiar Kawsaymi - Part 2Play Caption
Si hay un olor típico en el otoño es el de las castañas asadas.
If there is a typical smell in autumn, it's that of the roasted chestnuts.
Caption 24, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 1Play Caption
Las manzanas puedes hacer dulce de manzana, pie de manzana, torta de manzana,
[With] apples you can make apple jam, apple pie, apple cake,Play Caption
And speaking of apples, they can also be used to make sidra (cider) of both the alcoholic and non-alchoholic variety:
y la bebida más típica es la sidra de manzana.
and the most typical drink is hard apple cider.
Caption 57, Viajando con Fermín La Feria de Santo TomásPlay Caption
In this video, Fermín tells us in this about the Feria de Santo Tomás (Saint Tomas Fair), which takes place on the last day of autumn, December 21st, and is thought to be the first day of the Christmas season.
To continue on the theme of fiestas (holidays), let's talk about the Spanish terms for some fall celebrations in both the United States and Latin America:
Y en el interior le decimos, eh... Día de Muertos. Eh... Quizás tenga un poco de relación en la fecha con el Halloween de Estados Unidos,
And in [places] inside the country we call it, um... Day of the Dead. Um... Perhaps it's a little bit related with the United States's Halloween in respect to date,
Captions 69-70, Yabla en Yucatán Don Salo - Part 2Play Caption
And, in addition to Halloween and the Day of the Dead, we have, in November, the important North American holiday of Thanksgiving, which is called el Día de Acción de Gracias in Spanish.
Let's conclude today's lesson with a quick-reference review of the words we have learned:
el otoño (the autumn/fall)
la estación (the season)
el tiempo (the weather)
la temperatura (the temperture)
la lluvia (the rain)
el viento (the wind)
la niebla (the fog)
el sol (the sun)
hacer sol (to be sunny)
hacer viento (to be windy)
hacer frío (to be cold)
las hojas (the leaves)
el espantapájaros (the scarecrow)
la cesta (the basket)
la paja (the straw)
el heno (the hay)
la calabaza (the pumpkin)
la quinoa (the quinoa)
la cosecha (the harvest)
cosechar (to harvest)
el maíz (the corn)
las castañas asadas (the roasted chestnuts)
la manzana (the apple)
la fiesta (the holiday)
el Día de Muertos/el Día de los Muertos (The Day of the Dead)
el Día de Acción de Gracias (Thanksgiving)
And that brings us to the end of our lesson on useful Spanish vocabulary for the autumn season. We hope you've enjoyed it, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
How do you say the names of the planets in Spanish? We'll start off today's lesson by telling you how and then follow up with some simple astronomical vocabulary.
The names of the planets in Spanish are as follows:
1. Mercurio = Mercury
2. Venus = Venus
3. La Tierra = (the) Earth
4. Marte = Mars
5. Júpiter = Jupiter
6. Saturno = Saturn
7. Urano = Uranus
8. Neptuno = Neptune
Now that you know what the planets are called in Spanish, let's take a look at a few examples from our Yabla Spanish library where their names are mentioned:
El planeta Marte alguna vez tuvo ríos, lagos y mares.
The planet Mars once had rivers, lakes, and seas.
Caption 6, Yabla informa Noticias con CleerPlay Caption
The clip you just heard is from a news segment by Yabla's Cleer which delves into the mystery of what happened to the water on Mars. Let's see another clip that mentions the name of a planet, this time from a song:
Planeta Mercurio y el año de la serpiente Signo patente tatuado y en mi frente
Planet Mercury and the year of the snake Obvious sign, tatooed and on my forehead
Captions 10-11, Ana Tijoux 1977Play Caption
We shouldn't neglect to mention that, as you may know, what was formerly considered to be the ninth planet, Pluto, was reclassified as a "dwarf planet" in 2006. The name for Pluto in Spanish is Plutón.
Gracias por la clase y por aclararme que yo no vivo ni en Plutón ni en la luna,
Thanks for the class and for clarifying to me that I don't live either on Pluto or on the moon,
Caption 55, Conversaciones con Luis AstrologíaPlay Caption
And, speaking of the moon, we thought you might be interested in learning how to say "the moon," "the sun," and some other basic vocabulary related to our solar system:
1. la luna = the moon
2. el sol = the sun
3. la estrella = the star
4. el planeta = the planet
5. la galaxia = the galaxy
6. la Vía Láctea = the Milky Way
7. el cometa = the comet
8. el agujero negro/el hoyo negro = the black hole
9. la nave espacial = the spaceship
10. la constelación = the constellation
11. el sistema solar = the solar system
12. la teoría del Big Bang = the Big Bang theory
13. el eclipse = the eclipse
14. la astronomía = astronomy
15. el telescopio = the telescope
Now, let's take a look at a several of these terms in action:
eh... finalmente viene el universo, que es la Vía Láctea.
um... finally comes the universe, which is the Milky Way.
Caption 31, Guillermo el chamán Los ritualesPlay Caption
Las... Se le llama Las Siete Luminarias porque hay siete volcanes que forman la Osa Mayor, que es la constelación de la Osa Mayor.
The... It's called The Seven Luminaries because there are seven volcanoes which make up Ursa Major, which is the Ursa Major constellation.
Captions 13-14, Guillermo el chamán La tecnología mayaPlay Caption
Lo que no sabemos, es de qué planeta son estos niños. Son del planeta Tierra.
What we don't know is from what planet these kids are. They are from planet Earth.
Captions 5-6, Salvando el planeta Palabra Llegada - Part 3Play Caption
La nave rusa Soyuz ha despegado desde el centro espacial europeo de Kourou
The Russian spaceship Soyuz has taken off from the European space center in Kourou
Caption 3, Europa Abierta Galileo vs. GPSPlay Caption
Note that la nave can be used as a shorter way to say "the spaceship" in lieu of la nave espacial. The clip in which this video is found deals with the history of the European space program, in case you are interested in checking it out!
That's alll for today. We hope you've enjoyed this lesson on basic astronomical terms in Spanish, and don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments.
How do we talk about our emotions in Spanish? Although there are many different ways, this lesson will focus on three main categories of words that are typically used to express the whole range of emotions in Spanish while covering some of the major emotions in Spanish we might wish to talk about.
The three main word categories for talking about our emotions in Spanish are adjectives, reflexive verbs, and nouns. Let's take a closer look at some tendencies of each of these three parts of speech when describing emotions in Spanish.
Remember that adjectives modify, or describe, nouns, and to name a few simple ones in Spanish, we could take contento/a(s) (happy), triste(s) (sad), and enojado/a(s) (angry). As always, such emotional adjectives must agree with the noun they modify in terms of number and gender. You will note that the adjectives that describe emotions in Spanish are commonly used in conjunction with particular verbs, such as estar (to be), sentir (to feel), ponerse (to become/get), or quedarse (to become/get), to name a few. So, "Estoy contento," for example, would mean: "I'm happy."
Reflexive verbs in Spanish actually convey the action of feeling a certain emotion in and of themselves. As an example, since enojarse means "to get angry," one could say simply "Me enojé" (I got angry) in lieu of using an adjective/verb combination like "Me puse enojado," which conveys the same thing.
As a third option, nouns like tristeza (sadness) are additionally employed to talk about emotions in Spanish. Among others, one common manner of doing so is with the word "Qué..." in fixed expressions like, "¡Qué tristeza!" which literally means, "What sadness!" (but would be more commonly expressed in English with an expression like "How sad!"). Verbs like sentir (to feel) or tener (to have) are also commonly used with such emotional nouns in sentences such as "Siento mucha alegría" ("I feel really happy," or, more literally, "I feel a lot of happiness").
Adjectives that mean "happy" include feliz/felices, contento/a(s), and alegre(s). Let's take a look at some examples of these words in context along with some of the aforementioned verbs:
pues, que yo creo que él sí quiere formalizar algo conmigo y yo estoy muy feliz.
well, I think that he does want to formalize something with me, and I'm very happy.
Captions 40-41, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa Capítulo 5 - Part 9Play Caption
y, pues, me siento muy contento de que lo... lo pude lograr.
and well, I feel very happy that I... I was able to achieve it.
Caption 27, Rueda de la muerte Parte 1Play Caption
Y estoy alegre, alegre de que no sea cierto.
And I'm happy, happy it's not true.
Caption 31, Chus recita poemas Neruda y PizarnikPlay Caption
Remember that the verb estar is used to talk about emotions in Spanish rather than the verb ser because emotions tend to be temporary rather than permanent. That said, if someone (or something) permanently embodies a particular emotional attribute (e.g. a "happy person"), the verb ser can be used because this emotion becomes a trait, as in the following example:
La Vela se caracteriza además por ser un pueblo alegre,
La Vela is also characterized as being a happy town,
Captions 16-17, Estado Falcón Locos de la Vela - Part 1Play Caption
Moving on to the verb category, a common reflexive verb that expresses the idea of "cheering up" or "getting" or "being happy" or "glad" is alegrarse. Let's see some examples of this verb:
Qué bien; me alegro de que estén aquí.
How great; I'm glad you're here.
Caption 42, Club 10 Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
A tal punto que yo me alegré mucho, mucho, cuando supe que ibas a pasar veinticinco años en la cárcel.
To the point that I felt very happy, very, when I found out you were going to spend twenty-five years in prison.
Captions 56-57, Yago 14 La peruana - Part 1Play Caption
Lastly, we will deal with the corresponding nouns that mean "happiness" or "joy": (la) alegría and (la) felicidad.
Ay, bueno, Don Ramiro, de verdad, qué alegría escuchar eso.
Oh, well, Mister Ramiro, really, what a joy to hear that.
Caption 33, Tu Voz Estéreo Laura - Part 10Play Caption
While "what a joy" was translated a bit more literally here, it could also be a rough equivalent of "how great" (to hear that) or, of course, "I'm so happy" (to hear that). Let's look at one more example:
Hasta el sábado, amiga. ¡Qué felicidad!
See you Saturday, my friend. [I'm] so happy!
Caption 83, Cleer y Lida Conversación telefónica - Part 1Play Caption
Again, while "What happiness!" would be the literal translation of "¡Qué felicidad!" in English, you will note that this and many of our other examples of expressions with the word "Qué" plus an emotional noun have been translated slightly differently to reflect what an English speaker might say in a similar situation.
"Excitement" might be looked upon as an extension of happiness, and adjectives like emocionado/a(s) (excited) or entusiasmado/a(s) (excited/enthusiastic) express this in Spanish:
Estoy tan emocionado de volver a verte.
I am so excited to see you again.
Caption 53, Yago 11 Prisión - Part 3Play Caption
Ehm... Mi amor, estás muy entusiasmado con todo esto. -Mmm.
Um... My love, you're very enthusiastic about all this. -Mmm.
Caption 7, Yago 10 Enfrentamientos - Part 4Play Caption
As you might have guessed, the verbs for "to be/get excited" are emocionarse and entusiasmarse:
Ya me emocioné.
I already got excited.Play Caption
¿Por qué no entusiasmarnos más?
Why not get more excited?Play Caption
Although the noun (la) emoción can indeed mean "emotion," it can also mean "excitement":
Entonces... -¡Qué emoción! Qué emoción, y después... ¡oh!, ¿sí?
So... -How exciting! How exciting, and afterward... oh, really?
Captions 31-32, Clase Aula Azul La segunda condicional - Part 2Play Caption
That said, while emocionado/a(s), emocionarse, and "¡Qué emoción!" can also be used to talk about "being moved" with emotion, context should usually let you know the speaker's intention.
Triste(s) is undoubtedly the most common adjective that means "sad" in Spanish:
nos dimos cuenta [de] que mi barco estaba partido. Candelario se puso triste.
we realized my boat was split. Candelario got sad.
Captions 43-44, Guillermina y Candelario El Gran RescatePlay Caption
The reflexive verb entristecerse, on the other hand, means "to get" (or "feel" or "be" or "become," etc.) "sad":
La alumna se entristeció mucho al saber que se había fallecido su maestro.
The student became really sad when she found out that her teacher had passed away.
The noun (la) tristeza literally means "sadness," but is utilized along with "Qué" to say, "How sad":
Qué tristeza, ¿no? Terrible.
How sad, right? Terrible.
Caption 5, Tu Voz Estéreo Feliz Navidad - Part 19Play Caption
While there are a lot of adjectives that mean "angry" or "mad" in Spanish, the two most common standard (rather than slang) ones are probably enojado/a(s) and enfadado/a(s). Let's take a look:
¿Qué te pasa? ¿Estás enojado conmigo? No, no estoy enojado, estoy cansado. Estoy cansado, ¿OK?
What's going on with you? Are you mad at me? No, I'm not mad, I'm tired. I'm tired, OK?
Captions 42-43, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 3Play Caption
Estamos muy enfadadas. Estoy muy enfadada.
We are very angry. I am very angry.
Captions 30-31, El Aula Azul Estados de ánimoPlay Caption
By extension, verbs that mean "to get mad" or "angry" include enojarse and enfadarse, although there are many more:
Se enojó muchísimo con el viejo
She got really angry with my old man
Caption 86, Muñeca Brava 2 Venganza - Part 6Play Caption
No me enfadé con él, ni le insulté,
I didn't get mad at him, nor did I insult him,
Captions 78-79, Cortometraje Beta - Part 1Play Caption
There are a lot of nouns that refer to anger in Spanish, and we bet you guessed two of them: (el) enojo and (el) enfado. Others include (la) ira, (la) rabia, and (la) bronca. Although it is not as common to hear these words in expressions with "Qué..." as some of the other nouns we have talked about, we can give you some examples of how a couple of these words are used to express anger in captions from our Yabla Spanish library:
Lo que yo sentía en ese momento era algo mucho más profundo que un enfado.
What I felt at that moment was something way deeper than anger.
Caption 81, Cortometraje Beta - Part 1Play Caption
porque claro, alguna vez siento mucha rabia y no me gusta sentir tanta rabia
because of course, sometimes I feel a lot of rage and I don't like feeling so much ragePlay Caption
For a lot of additional standard and slangy manners of talking about anger, feel free to refer to this lesson on expressing feelings of tiredness or anger in Spanish.
Let's start with the adjective that means "surprised": sorprendido/a(s).
Profesores, la verdad es que me he quedado sorprendida;
Professors, the truth is that I have been surprised;
Caption 19, Alumnos extranjeros del Tec de MonterreyPlay Caption
The reflexive verb that means "to be" or "to get surprised" is sorprenderse:
Es que... me sorprendí, querida. -¿Por qué?
It's just that... I was surprised, dear. -Why?
Caption 65, Muñeca Brava 18 - La Apuesta - Part 11Play Caption
And finally, the noun (la) sorpresa can be used with "Qué" to say "How surprising" or "What a surprise":
Qué sorpresa. -Qué... Vale, qué lindo verte.
What a surprise. -What... Vale, how nice to see you.
Caption 15, Español para principiantes Saludos y encuentrosPlay Caption
The common Spanish adjectives decepcionado/a(s) and desilusionado/s(s) both mean "disappointed":
Mi novia está desilusionado conmigo por haberle mentido.
My girlfriend is disappointed in me for having lied to her.
No. Estoy decepcionada. ¿De mí? ¿Y por qué estás decepcionada?
No. I'm disappointed. In me? And why are you disappointed?
Captions 61-63, Muñeca Brava 41 La Fiesta - Part 6Play Caption
Naturally, the verbs decepcionarse and desilusionarse mean "to get" or "be disappointed." Let's take a look at them in context:
Me decepcioné mucho cuando suspendí el examen.
I was really disappointed when I failed the test.
Nada. Tengo qué sé yo, miedo a desilusionarme, va.
Nothing. I have, I don't know, a fear of being disappointed, well.
Caption 38, Muñeca Brava 39 Verdades - Part 5Play Caption
So, of course, "Qué desilusión" or "Qué decepción" would be "How disappointing" or "What a disappointment":
What a disappointment.Play Caption
Digo, personalmente no, no, no fue una desilusión porque viste, que cuando sos chico las pérdidas son diferentes.
I mean, personally it wasn't a disappointment because you know, when you are a kid, losses are different.
Captions 48-49, Biografía Natalia Oreiro - Part 2Play Caption
Let's conclude today's lesson by talking about some more of what might be considered sentimientos negativos (negative feelings) in Spanish: worry, anxiety, and stress.
Adjectives like preocupado/a(s)(worried), estresado/a(s) ("stressed" or "stressed out"), ansioso/a(s) (anxious), or nervioso/a(s), which often means "restless," "anxious," etc. in addition to "nervous," can be used to describe those unpleasant sensations in Spanish. Let's look at some examples:
Entonces, cuando usted sufra una infección fuerte o esté preocupado o estresado,
So, when you get a strong infection or are worried or stressed,
Captions 35-36, Los médicos explican Consulta con el médico: herpesPlay Caption
Le noto un poco nervioso, ¿le pasa algo? -No, no, no...
I notice you're a bit on edge, is something wrong with you? -No, no, no...
Caption 9, Muñeca Brava 33 El partido - Part 6Play Caption
¿Hay algún pensamiento o algo que le mantenga a usted ansioso o desde cuándo... o algo que haya desencadenado todos estos problemas?
Is there some thought or something that keeps you anxious or from which... or something that has triggered all these problems?
Captions 32-33, Los médicos explican Diagnóstico: nervios y estrésPlay Caption
The reflexive verb preocuparse means "to worry," while estresarse means "to stress" or "get stressed out," etc.:
¿De verdad se preocupa por mi seguridad? Claro que sí me preocupo.
Do you really worry about my safety? Of course I worry.
Captions 36-37, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 3Play Caption
un día tengo que pagar uno, otro día otro, y eso, la... la gente se estresa.
one day I have to pay one, another day another one, and that... people get stressed out.
Caption 67, Cuentas claras Sobreviviendo enero - Part 2Play Caption
The corresponding nouns for the verbs and adjectives we have talked about are: (la) preocupación (worry), (el) estrés (stress), (los) nervios (nerves), and (la) ansiedad (anxiety), which can be used in sentences in infinite ways to describe these nerve-wracking sensations. For example, we might say "¡Qué nervios!" or "¡Qué estrés!" to say something like "I'm so nervous/anxious!" or "How stressful!"/"I'm so stressed out!" Let's look at some additional examples of these nouns with the verbs tener (to have) and sentir (to feel):
Últimamente tengo mucho estrés y estar un poco en la naturaleza es muy bueno.
Lately, I've been really stressed out, and it's great to be in nature a bit.
Captions 68-69, Cleer y Lida PicnicPlay Caption
Siento ansiedad, la necesidad de contar quién soy
I feel anxiety, the need to tell who I am
Caption 2, Monsieur Periné Mi libertadPlay Caption
You will note that while the literal translation of the first example would be "I have a lot of stress," "I've been really stressed out" may be the more likely equivalent for English speakers in this context. On the other hand, while the translator opted for the more literal "I feel anxiety" in the second example, "I feel anxious" would also be a viable option in English. For additional insight into how to discuss anxiety and stress in Spanish, we recommend the video Diagnóstico: nervios y estrés (Diagnosis: Nerves and Stress) from our series Los médicos explican (The Doctors Explain).
We have covered a multitude of emotions in Spanish, and videos like this one from our Curso de español [Spanish Course] series about Expresiones de sentimientos [Expressions of Feelings] and this one on Estados de Ánimo [Moods] by El Aula Azul can help you to express many more. And while most of the feelings we have talked about are pretty clearly negative or positive, the video Ni bien ni mal [Neither Good nor Bad] can help us to talk about some of those so-so emotions in Spanish. Are there any other feelings or emotions you'd like to learn to speak about in Spanish? Don't forget to let us know in your suggestions and comments.
In a previous lesson, we talked about short form possessive adjectives in Spanish: words like mi (my), tu (your), and nuestro (our), etc. that are placed in front of a noun to indicate ownership. The focus of this lesson will be long form possessive adjectives in Spanish, which, while similar in meaning, are different in terms of their form and placement.
While short form Spanish possessive adjectives always go before the noun they modify, long form possessive adjectives in Spanish come after the noun they describe. Furthermore, while some of the short form Spanish possessive adjectives remain the same whether a noun is masculine or feminine, long form Spanish possessive adjectives always change form for singular/plural and masculine/feminine in all of their forms. And finally, while short form possessive adjectives in Spanish never go with an article, long form Spanish possessive adjectives are often accompanied by a noun's definite or indefinite article.
Let's take a look at the long form Spanish possessive adjectives, their possible meanings, and how they correspond to the personal pronouns in Spanish. You will note that the long form Spanish possessive adjectives for nosotros/as and vosotros/as are the exact same as their short form equivalents.
Yo: mío, mío, míos, mías (my, mine, of mine)
Tú: tuyo, tuya, tuyos, tuyas (your, yours, of yours)
Él/ella/usted: suyo, suya, suyos, suyas (his, of his, her, hers, of hers, your, yours, of yours, its)
Nosotros/nosotras: nuestro, nuestros, nuestra, nuestras (our, ours, of ours)
Vosotros/vosotras: vuestro, vuestros, vuestra, vuestras ((plural informal) your, yours, of yours)
Ellos/ellas/ustedes: suyo, suya, suyos, suyas (their, theirs, of theirs, (plural) your, yours, of yours)
You may have noticed that, in comparison to short form Spanish possessive adjectives, there are more possible translations for long form possessive adjectives in Spanish, which will vary according to their context.
Let's take a look at the many translations of long form possessive adjectives in Spanish via a plethora of examples from Yabla's Spanish video library.
Este sombrero es mío. Estos sombreros son míos.
This hat is mine. These hats are mine.
Captions 10-11, Clase Aula Azul La posesión - Part 2Play Caption
Esta botella es mía. Estas botellas son mías.
This bottle is mine. These bottles are mine.
Captions 15-16, Clase Aula Azul La posesión - Part 2Play Caption
We chose these two examples to illustrate that, as we mentioned, long form Spanish possessive adjectives always agree with the nouns they modify in terms of both number and gender. As with short form Spanish possessive adjectives, the number/gender of the person or entity that "owns" is insignificant. Additionally, you will note that the translation for these Spanish possessive adjectives here is "mine." Let's look at an example where their translation is slightly different:
Y han venido unos amigos míos desde Mallorca, aquí hasta Málaga,
And some friends of mine have come here to Malaga from Mallorca
Caption 15, Amaya VoluntariosPlay Caption
Not only do we see an alternative translation for the long form Spanish possessive adjective míos (of mine), we see that long form Spanish possessive can be accompanied an article, in this case, the indefinite article unos.
Now, let's look at some translations for the long form Spanish possessive adjective tuyo and its variants:
¿Es tuya esta mochila?
Is this backpack yours?Play Caption
Así que, ¿no soy hijo tuyo?
So, I'm not your son?
Caption 68, Muñeca Brava 7 El poema - Part 2Play Caption
The interesting thing about this second example is that the long form Spanish possessive adjective tuyo has been translated as "your" instead of "yours" or "of yours," which is identical to the translation for the equivalent short form Spanish possessive adjective (tu). Hence, the same English sentence could have been written with the short form possessive adjective in Spanish, as follows:
Así que, ¿no soy tu hijo?
So, I'm not your son?
So, we see that there are cases in which we could choose to use either the long or short form Spanish possessive adjective to express the exact same idea in English, although the long form is, perhaps, the slightly less common/more literary manner of doing so.
As we saw in Part 1 of this lesson about short form Spanish possessive adjectives in regards to su and sus, this particular set of long form possessive adjectives can be confusing because they correspond with a lot of personal pronouns (él, ella, usted, ellos, ellas, and ustedes) and thus have a multitude of different translations, which we listed above. Context should usually help you to determine the meaning of these long form possessive adjectives in Spanish. Let's take a look:
Estos sombreros son suyos.
These hats are hers.
Caption 31, Clase Aula Azul La posesión - Part 2Play Caption
While this example seems pretty simple at first glance, since the masculine plural form of the Spanish possessive adjective was chosen to agree with the noun it modifies (sombreros) rather than its corresponding personal pronoun (ella), this very same sentence could also mean "These hats are his," "These hats are yours" (one person or multiple people), or "These hats are theirs" (all males, all females, or a mixed group). So, let's hope that the text or conversation has given you some previous clues as to who the hats belong to and/or who is being spoken about (it usually does!). Let's see another example:
Efectivamente, era el rostro suyo
Indeed, it was his face
Caption 35, Aprendiendo con Carlos El microrrelato - Part 3Play Caption
What can we discern here? First, because the previous sentences in this flash fiction story by Carlos refer to the maestro de ceremonias, we know that "his" was the correct translation choice for suyo in this context. Second, remember that since the translation for the short form possessive adjective in Spanish su in English can also be "his," the very same idea could also have been conveyed with the sentence: "Efectivamente, era su rostro." Finally, we will reiterate that, although with short form possessive Spanish adjectives, the article is never used (it's simply su rostro), with the long form, they can be, as in the case of el rostro suyo. That said, this is a personal choice, and one might also omit the article and write simply "era rostro suyo" with no change in meaning. Let's look at one more variation of this long form Spanish possessive adjective.
Y también me gustó mucho la novela suya, eh, "Amor y pico"; me encantó.
And I also liked your soap opera a lot, um, "Love and Fortune;" I loved it.Play Caption
Here, since the speaker is consistently addressing a female actress with usted (formal "you") and talking to her about a soap opera she did, it is obvious that "your" is the intended meaning of the long form Spanish possessive adjective suya, which agrees in number and gender with the noun it modifies (la novela) and that, furthermore, the speaker chose to include that noun's definite article (la). We bet you're getting the hang of this by now!
Let's start off with some very simple examples:
Este sombrero es nuestro. Estos sombreros son nuestros. Esta botella es nuestra. Estas botellas son nuestras.
This hat is ours. These hats are ours. This bottle is ours. These bottles are ours.
Captions 35-38, Clase Aula Azul La posesión - Part 2Play Caption
Now, let's move on to a bit tougher one:
Padre nuestro, vamos a bendecir el alimento que vamos a comer.
Father of ours [or "Our Father], let's bless the food that we are going to eat.Play Caption
Through these clips, we can see not only the number/gender agreement we have been speaking about, but also some different translations for the long form Spanish possessive adjective forms of nuestro.
Let's conclude our lesson by looking at some clips of the long form Spanish possessive adjectives vuestro, etc.:
Esta botella es vuestra. Estas botellas son vuestras.
This bottle is yours [plural]. These bottles are yours [plural].
Captions 41-42, Clase Aula Azul La posesión - Part 2Play Caption
¿Y el embutido es vuestro?
And, the sausage is yours?
Caption 57, 75 minutos Del campo a la mesa - Part 4Play Caption
In lieu of this translation, this last sentence might also have been translated as "And is the sausage yours?" or even "And is it your sausage?"
We hope that this lesson has helped you to understand long form Spanish possessive adjectives and how they are different from short form possessive adjectives in Spanish. As an additional source for learning about long form possessive adjectives in Spanish, we additionally recommend the lesson Clase Aula Azul- La posesión- Part 2, and no se olviden de dejarnos los comentarios y sugerencias tuyos (don't forget to leave us your comments and suggestions).
What are possessive adjectives in Spanish? Most simply put, possessive adjectives in Spanish are the Spanish equivalents of words like "my," "your," "his, "mine," etc. that indicate ownership or possession. There are two types of Spanish possessive adjectives: long form and short form. In the first part of this lesson, we will deal with how to use short form possessive adjectives in Spanish.
Let's take a look at the short form Spanish possessive adjectives and how they correspond to the personal pronouns in Spanish:
Yo: mi, mis (my)
Tú: tu, tus (your)
Él/ella/usted: su, sus (his, her, its, your)
Nosotros/nosotras: nuestro, nuestros, nuestra, nuestras (our)
Vosotros/vosotras: vuestro, vuestros, vuestra, vuestras (plural informal "your")
Ellos/ellas/ustedes: su, sus (their/plural "your")
What did you notice at first glance? Allow us to point out a couple of our observations:
1. The Spanish possessive adjectives that correspond to nosotros/nosotras (masculine and feminine "we") and vosotros/vosotras (masculine and feminine plural, informal "you") look a bit more complicated because there are more forms, four rather than two. This is because the forms of these Spanish possessive adjectives are affected by the genders of the nouns they modify, whereas the others are not.
2. The words su and sus in Spanish correspond to a lot of personal pronouns (él, ella, usted, ellos, ellas, and ustedes) and can thus mean a lot of different things ("his," "her," "its," singular and plural "your," and "their"). We'll help you to learn to distinguish their meanings in context.
3. Regardless of whether a personal pronoun is singular (e.g. yo, tú, etc.) or plural (e.g. ellos, ustedes, etc.), they all have singular and plural possessive adjective forms. This is because, whether a Spanish possessive adjective is singular or plural or masculine or feminine has nothing to do with the number or gender of the personal pronoun it is associated with and everything to do with the number and gender of the noun it modifies.
Keeping these points in mind, let's take a closer look at each of the possessive adjectives in Spanish, as well as some examples from our Yabla Spanish video library.
Generally speaking, Spanish adjectives agree with the noun they modify in terms of number and gender. That said, the "good news" about the Spanish possessive adjectives for "my," mi and mis, is that they remain the same regardless of a noun's gender. For both masculine and feminine nouns, then, the singular form mi should be used for singular nouns, while the plural form mis should accompany plural nouns. Let's look:
A mi lado, tengo a mi amigo, Xavi,
Beside me, I have my friend, Xavi,Play Caption
nos encontramos con mi amiga, la rana.
we ran into my friend, the frog.Play Caption
Hoy os voy a hablar de mis amigos felinos, que también son mis vecinos.
Today, I'm going to talk to you about my feline friends who are also my neighbors.
Captions 3-4, Fermín y los gatos Mis gatas vecinasPlay Caption
Los viernes, juego al fútbol con mis amigas.
On Fridays, I play soccer with my friends.
Caption 21, Ariana Mi SemanaPlay Caption
As you can see, the singular Spanish possessive adjective mi is used for both the masculine and feminine forms of the noun amigo/a, while the plural Spanish possessive adjective mis is used for the plural masculine and feminine nouns, amigos and amigas. Pretty simple, right?
The short form Spanish possessive adjectives tu and tus, which mean "your" when addressing someone informally, are similarly simplistic: tu is utilized for singular nouns, while tus is used for plural nouns, regardless of gender. Let's see some examples with tu and tus:
¿Qué es lo que más te gusta de tu casa?
What is it that you like the most about your house?Play Caption
Déjame saber en tus comentarios
Let me know in your comments
Caption 59, Ana Carolina Conjugaciones verbalesPlay Caption
Although the noun casa is feminine, the same Spanish possessive adjective, tu, would also be used for masculine singular nouns (tu coche = your car, etc.). In turn, while the word tus appears with the masculine plural noun comentarios in this example, the very same possessive adjective would be used for feminine plural nouns, e.g. tus manzanas (your apples).
In contrast to mi/s and tu/s, the Spanish possessive adjectives for "our" do change in accordance with both a noun's number and gender. Let's take a look at the masculine/feminine and singular/plural forms of the nouns hijo (boy), hija (girl), etc. with their corresponding forms of the Spanish possessive adjective nuestro:
Nuestro hijo (our son)
Nuestros hijos (our sons)
Nuestra hija (our daughter)
Nuestras hijas (our daughters)
As you can see, this Spanish possessive adjective takes the ending -o for masculine singular nouns, -os for masculine plural nouns, -a for feminine singular nouns, and -as for feminine plural nouns. Let's view a couple of examples from Yabla's video library:
Para nuestro primer experimento utilizaremos algo que jamás creíamos que podría faltar en nuestros hogares:
For our first experiment, we'll use something we never thought could be lacking in our homes:
Captions 11-13, Ana Carolina GérmenesPlay Caption
¿Qué había sucedido con nuestra amistad, mmm? ¿Desde cuándo la mujer empezó a gobernar nuestras vidas?
What had happened to our friendship, hmm? Since when did women start to govern our lives?
Captions 17-18, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 8 - Part 3Play Caption
We can see in these examples all four versions of the Spanish possessive adjective for "we," all of which agree with the nouns they modify in terms of both number and gender.
If you take the Spanish possessive adjectives for "we" (nosotros, etc.) and replace the "n" with a "v," you have the possessive adjectives in Spanish that mean "your" when addressing more than one person in a less formal situation. This form corresponds to the Spanish personal pronouns vosotros/as, which are primarily used in Spain. Let's take a look:
Vuestro hijo (your son)
Vuestros hijos (your sons)
Vuestra hija (your daughter)
Vuestras hijas (your daughters)
Let's examine a couple of video excerpts:
y además podéis aprovechar para dar vuestra opinión
and you can also take the opportunity to give your opinion
Caption 36, La cocina de María Tortilla de patatasPlay Caption
Pero antes vamos a ver a vuestros amigos,
But beforehand we're going to see your friends,Play Caption
The "good news," once again, about su in Spanish and sus in Spanish is that there are only two forms, singular and plural, that modify both masculine and feminine nouns. The "bad news," though, at least in terms of their initial challenge for native English speakers, is that these possessive adjectives in Spanish can mean many different things depending on their contexts. Having said that, let's take a look at su in Spanish and sus in Spanish, which can mean either "his," "her," "its," "your" (in the case of either one or more than one person), or "their."
Es su coche (It's his car).
Son sus coches. (They are his cars).
Es su motocicleta (It's his motorcycle).
Son sus motocicletas. (They are his motorcycles).
Es su coche (It's her car).
Son sus coches (They are her cars).
Es su motocicleta (It's her motorcycle).
Son sus motocicletas (They are her motorcycles).
Your (formal, one person):
Es su coche (It's your car).
Es su motocicleta (It's your motorcycle).
Son sus coches (They are your cars).
Son sus motocicletas (They are your motorcycles).
Your (more than one person):
Es su coche (It's your (guys') car).
Es su motocicleta (It's your (guys') motorcycle).
Son sus coches (They are your (guys') cars).
Son sus motocicletas (They are your (guys') motorcycles).
Es su coche (It's their car).
Es su motocicleta (It's their motorcycle).
Son sus coches (They are their cars).
Son sus motocicletas (They are their motorcycles).
Wait, what?! You might notice that the four sentences under each English possessive adjective category are all the same! And yet, their translations are totally different. So, how would we decipher the intended meaning of su in Spanish or sus in Spanish when these two possessives in Spanish can mean so many things? As always, context is key! Let's take a look at some examples to illuminate this:
El artista más importante es Gaudí. Hoy voy a visitar una de sus obras más conocidas, la Sagrada Familia.
The most important artist is Gaudi. Today I'm going to visit one of his most well-known works, the Sagrada Familia [Sacred Family].
Captions 45-47, Ariana EspañaPlay Caption
Since the previous sentence mentions the artist Gaudi, it is pretty obvious that sus in this context means "his," referring to "his works." And, just to reiterate, the plural form sus must be used here since obras is a plural noun, in spite of the fact that Gaudi is just one person since one person can own more than one thing, while more than one person can own just one thing (think nuestra casa). Let's take a look at a couple of additional examples of su/s in Spanish:
por ejemplo, para que usted practique con su novia, Cata.
for example for you to practice with your girlfriend, Cata.
Caption 17, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 2 - Part 6Play Caption
Here, the word usted tips us off that the speaker means "your girlfriend," as su in Spanish can mean "your" in the formal style of address. And, even in the absence of that explicit word, were someone to generally address you with the usted form, you would take for granted that they meant "you" when utilizing su in Spanish or sus in Spanish. Let's see one more:
Desde sus inicios, el Centro Hispano de Todos los Santos se ha dedicado a sembrar esperanza.
Since its beginnings, the Centro Hispano de Todos los Santos [All Saints Hispanic Center] has been dedicated to sowing hope.
Captions 1-2, Transformación EstéticaPlay Caption
In this example, sus in Spanish has been translated as "its" since the inicios "belong to" an inanimate object: the All Saints Hispanic Center.
Although context can usually provide us with good clues about the meaning of su in Spanish or sus in Spanish, there are ambiguous cases that may require clarification. In a story or conversation involving both males and females, for example, a reference to su casa might cause confusion as to whose house it actually is. In such cases, it might be preferable to, in lieu of a Spanish possessive adjective, employ the preposition de ("of" or "belonging to") plus a personal pronoun (ella, usted, etc.) for the sake of clarity, as in the following example:
no es un problema de la gente de la ciudad, es un problema personal de usted conmigo.
it's not a problem of the people of the city, it's your personal problem with me.
Caption 15, Yago 7 Encuentros - Part 1Play Caption
Since, had the speaker said su problema personal, that could theoretically refer to either la gente de la ciudad (and thus be translated as "their personal problem with me") or the person to whom he is speaking, it was a safer bet to go with de usted.
We hope that this lesson has helped you to better understand how to use possessive adjectives in Spanish in their short form. For more information on short form possessive adjectives in Spanish, be sure to check out Adjetivos posesivos- Part 2 from the series Lecciones con Carolina, which deals with agreement, as well as this useful lesson from El Aula Azul entitled La posesión- Part 1. And, as always, no se olviden de dejarnos sus sugerencias y comentarios (don't forget to leave us your suggestions and comments).
In this lesson, we will talk about the diaeresis or dieresis in Spanish. But, do you know what a diaeresis is to begin with? Let's take a look at the following clip:
El pueblo de Izamal fue un importante centro urbano maya en la antigüedad.
The town of Izamal was an important Mayan urban center in ancient times.
Caption 26, Mérida y sus alrededores Izamal Pueblo MágicoPlay Caption
Did you find the dieresis in that clip? If not, please keep reading this lesson, as we are going to tell you how to use the dieresis in Spanish.
In English, a diaeresis is a mark placed over a vowel to indicate that the vowel is emphasized or pronounced separately from the other vowels (as in "naïve" or "Brontë"). In Spanish, a diaeresis is represented by the same symbol (two little dots above a letter). That said, we will now highlight the word that has the diaeresis in the previous clip:
El pueblo de Izamal fue un importante centro urbano maya en la antigüedad.
The town of Izamal was an important Mayan urban center in ancient times.
Caption 26, Mérida y sus alrededores Izamal Pueblo MágicoPlay Caption
However, as using a dieresis in Spanish is slightly different than in English, let's learn the golden rule for employing this unique symbol.
The rule is quite simple: a diaeresis must be placed over the vowel "u" to indicate that said vowel must be pronounced in words that have the combinations -gue and -gui (since in most Spanish words with these letter combinations, the "u" is silent). For example, in words like guerra (war) and guerilla (guerrilla), the gue- is pronounced more like the English word "gay," while in words like guía (guide) and guisante (pea), gui- sounds like "ghee." The addition of the diaeresis, on the other hand, would transform the sound of the letters gue- to "gway" and -gui to "gwee." Let's take a look at a couple of examples:
todos bastante negativos, humillación, vergüenza, dolor,
all quite negative, humiliation, shame, pain,
Caption 55, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 8 - Part 3Play Caption
Los pingüinos se parecen a las gallinas
Penguins are like chickens
Caption 24, Guillermina y Candelario Nuestro Amigo PinguinoPlay Caption
Additionally, please keep in mind that the diaeresis must be used in words that are written in capital letters. Also, if you are wondering how to spell diaeresis in Spanish, it is written as follows: diéresis (an esdrújula word with the graphic accent on the third-to-last syllable).
Are there a lot of Spanish words that require a diaeresis? Although there are not that many, let's take a look at some of the most common palabras con diéresis (words with a diaeresis) in Spanish.
Me muevo mucho entre la ambigüedad.
I move a lot within ambiguity.
Caption 12, María Marí Su pasión por su arte - Part 2Play Caption
Justo encima del diccionario bilingüe
Right above the bilingual dictionary,Play Caption
Más bien. ¿Quién se piensa que me trajo, la cigüeña de París?
Of course. Who do you think brought me, the stork from Paris?
Caption 16, Muñeca Brava 48 - Soluciones - Part 8Play Caption
o sea, programas de inmersión lingüística en Barcelona.
I mean, language immersion programs, in Barcelona.Play Caption
Mírelo tan sinvergüenza.
Look at how shameless he is.Play Caption
And that's all for today. We hope that this lesson has helped you to understand how to use the dieresis in Spanish. By the way, do you know more palabras con diéresis? Let us know, and don't forget to send us your suggestions and comments. ¡Hasta la próxima!
Do you know how to say years in Spanish? In English, we know that 1985 is written nineteen eighty-five. What about in Spanish? Let's take a look at some of the rules you need to know for writing years in Spanish correctly. In addition, make sure you listen carefully to the clips in this lesson so you know how to pronounce years in Spanish as well.
If you want to know how to say years in Spanish, you will need to know how to say the cardinal numbers in Spanish from 1 to 1,000. There's just no way around this.
Do you want to refresh the numbers from 1 to 100? If you do, please check out the following lesson:
Now, let's recall the hundreds. For the numbers from 1 to 199, you will need to use the word "ciento." Let's check out some examples:
Madrid AB ciento treinta y cinco con destino Nueva York, John F. Kennedy.
Madrid AB one hundred thirty-five to New York, John F. Kennedy."
Captions 32-33, Raquel Avisos de MegafoníaPlay Caption
Cuenta con una vista privilegiada de toda la ciudad de alrededor de ciento ochenta grados.
It has an extraordinary one-hundred-eighty-degree view of the whole city.
Caption 65, Quito El PanecilloPlay Caption
For the numbers from 200 to 999, you will need to use the multiples of 100. Let's review them:
doscientos (two hundred)
trescientos (three hundred)
cuatrocientos (four hundred)
quinientos (five hundred)
seiscientos (six hundred)
setecientos (seven hundred)
ochocientos (eight hundred)
novecientos (nine hundred)
And, of course, let's not forget about mil (one thousand)!
Now that we have reviewed these numbers, let's see how to write and pronounce some historical years in Spanish.
Cristóbal Colón descubrió América en mil cuatrocientos noventa y dos.
Christopher Columbus discovered America in fourteen ninety-two.Play Caption
Mil seiscientos noventa y siete, invasión francesa a Cartagena,
Sixteen ninety-seven, French invasion of Cartagena,Play Caption
El ingenio más antiguo de Europa, que data del año mil setecientos veintiocho,
The oldest factory in Europe, which dates back to the year seventeen hundred twenty-eight,
Captions 36-37, Viajando con Fermín Frigiliana, MálagaPlay Caption
The twentieth century was one of the most defining centuries in the history of humankind. For this reason, we often refer to years that belong to that century. If you want to write and pronounce those years in Spanish, you will need to use the following formula:
mil + novecientos + the number
Let's take a look at some of them.
y fue construida en el año mil novecientos.
and was built in nineteen hundred.
Caption 77, Viajando con Fermín Mijas PuebloPlay Caption
Fue realizado en mil novecientos veintidós
It was made in nineteen twenty-two
Caption 37, Marisa en Madrid Parque de El RetiroPlay Caption
En mil novecientos ochenta y cinco, sucedieron muchas cosas buenas.
In nineteen eighty-five, many good things happened.
Caption 2, Los Años Maravillosos Capítulo 1 - Part 2Play Caption
If you want to know how to write years in Spanish after the year 2000, you need to use the following simple formula:
dos + mil + the number
Let's look at some nore examples to see just how easy it is to say these years in Spanish.
y murió hace algunos años en el dos mil dos.
and died some years ago in two thousand two.
Caption 9, San Sebastián Peine del vientoPlay Caption
En dos mil trece, recibió más de cuatro millones de visitantes,
In two thousand thirteen, it received more than four million visitors,
Captions 6-7, Marisa en Madrid Parque de El RetiroPlay Caption
Y este dos mil veinte, que es un año bisiesto,
And this two thousand twenty, which is a leap year,
Caption 7, El coronavirus Introducción y vocabularioPlay Caption
As you can see, it is not too difficult to say years in Spanish, right? We hope you enjoyed this lesson, and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!
What are reflexive verbs in Spanish? A reflexive verb is a verb in which the subject (person or thing that completes the action) and object (person or thing that receives the action) are one in the same. In other words, the action "reflects back" onto the subject, or entails something one does to or for him or herself. It is no wonder then, that many of the things we "do to ourselves" in our daily routines (e.g. shaving ourselves, washing ourselves, etc.) fall into the category of reflexive Spanish verbs.
How can we recognize Spanish reflexive verbs? The main way to distinguish reflexive verbs in Spanish is by the fact that they all end in the pronoun se in their infinitive form. To take a very simple example, while the verb hablar means "to talk," hablarse is a reflexive verb meaning "to talk to oneself." However, the translations for reflexive verbs in Spanish aren't always so straightforward.
As we often say just "I shave" or "I wash" in lieu of "I shave/wash myself," the English translations of Spanish reflexive verbs won't always include pronouns like "myself," "yourself," etc. In other cases, the meanings of verbs like parecer (to seem) completely change in their reflexive forms (parecerse means "to look like"). And so, as there are a lot more reflexive verbs in Spanish than in English, many of which may not "seem" reflexive, with increased exposure to Spanish, we will learn which English concepts are expressed with Spanish reflexive verbs.
To conjugate reflexive verbs in Spanish, we must memorize the reflexive pronouns that correspond to each personal pronoun: yo (I), tú (you), etc.. Reflexive pronouns are most often placed before the verb, which is conjugated "as usual" (in the same way as its non-reflexive form). To demonstrate this, let's take a look at the reflexive pronouns and the simple present conjugation of the regular verb hablar. We will then show you the conjugation of its reflexive form (hablarse).
|Personal Pronoun||Reflexive Pronoun||Hablar||Hablarse|
|él, ella, usted||se||habla||se habla|
|ellos/as, ustedes||se||hablar||se hablan|
Now that you know the Spanish reflexive pronouns and how to conjugate reflexive Spanish verbs, let's take a look at some examples of reflexive verbs in Spanish for describing things that many of us do on a daily basis, with lots of instances from our Yabla video library as always! Here is our list of Spanish reflexive verbs for your daily routine:
The Spanish reflexive verb despertarse means "to wake up":
y por la mañana me despierto entre seis y cuarenta y cinco a siete y cuarto.
and in the morning I wake up between six forty-five and seven fifteen.Play Caption
After waking up, the next step might be levantarse ("to get up" or "get out of bed"):
Se levanta muy temprano.
She gets up very early.
Caption 51, El Aula Azul - Las ProfesionesPlay Caption
In other contexts, the reflexive Spanish verb levantarse could also mean, among other things, "to stand up" or "get up," as from a seat, or even "to rise up against," as in a rebellion.
The Spanish noun baño means "bath," and the verb bañarse can mean "to take a bath" as well. However, as bañarse can also be the more general "to bathe," a person might even use this verb to express the fact that they are taking a shower! Let's look at an example of this reflexive Spanish verb:
Uno se baña todos los días, mijita.
One bathes every day, my girl.
Caption 41, Muñeca Brava - 33 El partidoPlay Caption
On the other hand, if a person at the beach expresses their desire to bañarse, rather than wanting to wash the sand off of themselves, they are letting you know they would like to take a dip! The Spanish reflexive verb bañarse can also mean "to go swimming," a translation that often comes as a surprise to English speakers:
No hay muchas olas grandes como en Atacames.
There aren't many big waves like in Atacames.
Es más tranquilo para bañarse.
It's more peaceful to go swimming.
Captions 62-63, Pipo - Un paseo por la playa de AtacamesPlay Caption
In the morning, at night, or after the beach, indeed, one might need to ducharse (to take a shower):
¿Qué está haciendo Silvia?
What is Silvia doing?
Silvia se está duchando.
Silvia is taking a shower.
Captions 11-12, El Aula Azul - Actividades diarias: En casa con SilviaPlay Caption
Note that, in this example, the verb ducharse is conjugated in the present progressive tense. As with the present indicative and all other tenses, verbs are conjugated in the exact same way as they would be were they non-reflexive, with the addition of the appropriate reflexive pronoun.
The reflexive verb in Spanish lavarse generally means "to wash (oneself)." Let's look at an example:
Por ejemplo, "Yo me lavo".
For example, "Yo me lavo" [I wash myself].
La acción recae sobre la persona
The action falls back upon the person
que realiza la acción.
who carries out the action.
Pero, "Yo lavo los platos".
But, "Yo lavo los platos" [I wash the dishes].
Captions 45-48, Lecciones con Carolina - Verbos reflexivosPlay Caption
In this informative video about Spanish reflexive verbs, Yabla fan favorite Carolina explains the difference between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs, in this case the verbs lavar (to wash) and lavarse (to wash oneself). Let's look at an additional example:
Yo me lavo las manos. Tú te lavas las manos.
I wash my hands. You wash your hands.
Captions 19-20, Fundamentos del Español - 9 - Verbos ReflexivosPlay Caption
Unlike in English, where we express the idea of washing one's hands or some other body part with a possessive pronoun (my, your, etc.), this is not the case in Spanish. Instead, we use the definite article for the noun in question, manos (hands), in this case, las (the). Because the reflexive pronoun already indicates that the action is something we do to ourselves, it would be redundant in Spanish to say: Yo me lavo mis manos. As the correct way to express this is "Yo me lavo las manos," it might help you to remember the literal but non-sensical translation: "I wash myself the hands."
That said, let's move on to something else that's expressed with the notion of "washing" in Spanish: lavarse los dientes (to brush one's teeth).
Lavarse los dientes (literally "to wash one's teeth") is one of saying "to brush one's teeth" in Spanish:
Después, ehm... suelo lavarme los dientes en el baño,
After that, um... I usually brush my teeth in the bathroom,
Caption 3, El Aula Azul - Actividades DiariasPlay Caption
Different countries, regions, or individuals might instead use cepillarse los dientes, which also means "to brush one's teeth." Let's check out an example in the preterite tense:
Se cepilló los dientes,
He brushed his teeth,
Caption 20, Aprendiendo con Carlos - El microrrelatoPlay Caption
By extension, the noun el cepillo means "the brush," and we might have a cepillo de dientes (toothbrush) as well as a cepillo de pelo/cabello (hair brush), as in the following caption:
Sí... -¿Qué necesitamos para ir allí?
Yes... -What do we need to go there?
El cepillo de dientes.
El cepillo del pelo.
A hair brush.
Captions 49-51, Un Viaje a Mallorca - Planificando el viajePlay Caption
So, you've probably surmised by now that the verb cepillarse el pelo/cabello means "to brush one's hair."
The verb peinarse can mean "to comb one's hair" with a comb (un peine), "to brush one's hair," or "to do" or "style" one's hair in general:
Por eso paró en la playa
That's why she stopped on the beach
para mirarse en el espejo y peinarse.
to look at herself in the mirror and comb her hair.
Captions 21-22, Guillermina y Candelario - Mi Amiga la SirenaPlay Caption
Afeitarse is the verb for "to shave" (oneself, of course)!
Vos sabés lo que es todas las mañanas...
Do you know what it's like every morning...
mirarse en el espejo cuando uno se afeita
to look at oneself in the mirror when one's shaving,
Captions 30-31, Muñeca Brava - 8 TrampasPlay Caption
The next step in one's morning routine might be maquillarse (to put on makeup):
Aquí, siempre me maquillo para mis conciertos.
Here, I always put on makeup for my concerts.
Caption 47, Ariana - Mi CasaPlay Caption
Alternatively, one might say Aquí, siempre me pinto para mis conciertos, as pintarse (literally "to paint oneself") also means "to put on makeup."
Vestirse is the way to say "to get dressed" in Spanish.
Yo salgo y... y te vistes.
I'll leave and... and you get dressed.
Caption 30, Confidencial: El rey de la estafa - Capítulo 2Play Caption
Another way to say this might be ponerse la ropa (to put on one's clothes).
Although sacarse la ropa is one manner of saying "to get undressed" or "take off one's clothes," there are many other examples of reflexive verbs in Spanish that mean the same thing, including: quitarse la ropa, desvestirse, and desnudarse. Let's look at a couple of examples:
Si "Libertinaje" te saca...
If "Libertinaje" takes off your.....
te invita a sacarte la ropa,
invites you to take off your clothes,
Captions 4-5, Bersuit Vergarabat - EPKPlay Caption
Y se desnuda poco a poco y se convierte en tu piel
And she gets naked little by little and she becomes your skin
Caption 6, Reik - InolvidablePlay Caption
As you can see, the more literal "to get naked" might be an alternate translation for desnudarse.
We're finally getting to the end of our daily routine, when it's time for us to acostarnos (go to bed):
Tranquilícese, vaya a acostarse y deje de pensar en imposibles.
Calm down, go to bed, and stop thinking about impossible things.
Caption 31, Muñeca Brava - 48 - SolucionesPlay Caption
And finally, once in bed, it's time to fall asleep! While the non-reflexive dormir means "to sleep," dormirse means "to fall asleep."
Me dormí pensando en ti; pensando en ti, me desperté
I fell asleep thinking about you; thinking about you, I woke up
Caption 10, 75 minutos - Del campo a la mesaPlay Caption
Of course, this is just a partial list of reflexive verbs in Spanish that might be applicable to our daily routines. There are a lot more common reflexive verbs in Spanish that describe things one might do on a daily basis, including secarse (to dry oneself off), sentarse (to sit down), sentirse (to feel), emocionarse (to get excited), encontrarse con alguien (to meet with someone), acordarse de (to remember), olvidarse (to forget), sonreírse (to smile), reírse (to laugh), despedirse (to say goodbye), irse (to leave), and many, many more!
Are you familiar with the body parts in Spanish? Do you know how to say words like "hands," "legs," or "face" in Spanish? Let's see how to write and pronounce las partes del cuerpo en español (the parts of the body in Spanish), from head to toe!
Inclina tu cabeza hacia atrás,
Tilt your head back;Play Caption
Pelo is a very common word for "hair." However, keep in mind that pelo can refer to any kind of body hair, while the word cabello only refers to the hair on one's head.
Vale, pero los dos tenemos el pelo negro, vale, muy bien, perfecto.
OK, but we both have black hair, OK, very good, perfect.
Caption 12, Clase Aula Azul - El verbo parecerPlay Caption
Para mi cabello, aquí tengo mi cepillo de cabello
For my hair, I have here my hair brush
Caption 27, Ana Carolina - Artículos de aseo personalPlay Caption
Keep in mind that the Spanish word for the inner ear is el oído while the external ear (what you actually see) is called la oreja.
Las orejas son partes del cuerpo
The ears are parts of the body
que se encuentran en cada lateral de la cabeza
that are found on each side of the head
y que forman la parte exterior del oído.
and that form the external part of the inner ear.
Captions 53-55, Clara explica - El cuerpoPlay Caption
Some of the most often used parts of the body in Spanish are placed in our face. Let's take a look.
There are two words for face in Spanish: la cara and el rostro. However, while cara is mostly used to talk about the physical part of the body, rostro is often used to talk in a sort of poetic, abstract way about someone's face. Let's see how to pronounce both words:
Esa mañana, al lavarse la cara,
That morning, while washing his face,
Caption 15, Aprendiendo con Carlos - El microrrelatoPlay Caption
Pinto mi rostro de mascarada
I paint my face in masquerade
Caption 20, Alejandra Guzmán - Porque no estás aquíPlay Caption
Dio un suspiro y un golpe en la frente,
She let out a sigh and banged her forehead,
Caption 55, Cleer - Rafael Pombo y "Pastorcita"Play Caption
Me encantaría tener los ojos azules.
I would love to have blue eyes.
Caption 34, Clara explica - El cuerpoPlay Caption
Ahora voy a delinear las cejas con un lápiz color café.
Now I am going to line the eyebrows with a brown-colored pencil.
Caption 53, Maquillaje - Con Cata y CleerPlay Caption
Después tenemos las pestañas.
Then we have the eyelashes.
Caption 21, Marta de Madrid - El cuerpo - La cabezaPlay Caption
Cuando una mujer hablaba de mis mejillas,
When a woman talked about my cheeks,
Caption 23, Los Años Maravillosos - Capítulo 3Play Caption
que podía tener sangre por la nariz.
that he might have a bloody nose.
Caption 15, Juan Sánchez - PersonajesPlay Caption
Esta... esta boca quiere decir que está como un poco...
This... this mouth wants to say that it's like a bit...
Caption 67, Bucaramanga, Colombia - Pintor callejeroPlay Caption
Tanto te quise besar que me duelen los labios
I wanted to kiss you so much that my lips hurt
Caption 2, Shakira - Sale el SolPlay Caption
para que los dientes estén más fuertes
so that the teeth become strongerPlay Caption
Esta letra la pronuncias poniendo la lengua junto al paladar
You pronounce this letter by putting the tongue next to the palate
Caption 61, Ana Carolina - Mejorando la pronunciaciónPlay Caption
Después tenemos la barbilla.
Then we have the chin.
Caption 70, Marta de Madrid - El cuerpo - La cabezaPlay Caption
Vas a bajar el mentón hacia tu cuello
You're going to lower your chin toward your neck,
Caption 28, Bienestar con Elizabeth - RelajaciónPlay Caption
La cabeza es la parte superior del cuerpo
The head is the top part of the body
que está situada sobre el cuello
that is situated on the neck
Captions 49-50, Clara explica - El cuerpoPlay Caption
y a Chibchacum lo puso a cargar la Tierra en sus hombros.
and forced Chibchacum to carry the Earth on his shoulders.Play Caption
Esta que tengo en mis brazos se llama Poeska.
This one I have in my arms is named Poeska.
Caption 21, Fermín y los gatos - Mi gata PoeskaPlay Caption
Vamos a mover codos,
We're going to move [our] elbows,
que normalmente no movemos esta articulación.
as we don't normally move this joint.
Captions 15-16, Bienestar con Elizabeth - Activar las articulacionesPlay Caption
Of all the names of body parts in Spanish, this is probably the most unique. The word muñeca indeed means not only "wrist" but "doll" as well, so keep that in mind when you need to remember how to say "wrist" in Spanish.
sufren mucha lesión en codos, en muñecas y en hombros.
they suffer a lot of injuries on [their] elbows, wrists and shoulders.
Caption 28, Adícora, Venezuela - Los fisioterapeutasPlay Caption
los voy a colocar en mis manos,
I'm going to place them in my hands,
Caption 30, Ana Carolina - GérmenesPlay Caption
Tiene agujeros donde se colocan los dedos,
It has holes where you place your fingers,
Caption 38, Karla e Isabel - Instrumentos musicalesPlay Caption
Si tienes unas piernas fuertes y ganas de andar,
If you have some strong legs and feel like walking,
Caption 102, Blanca - Cómo moverse en BarcelonaPlay Caption
¡Vamos! Doble sus rodillas.
Let's go! Bend your knees.Play Caption
unos zapatos para los pies del bebé.
some shoes for the baby's feet.Play Caption
También, este... son frecuentes en lesionarse [sic] mucho las articulaciones metatarsianas
Also, um... they frequently hurt their metatarsal joints a lot,
que son los dedos del pie,
which are the toes,
Captions 25-26, Adícora, Venezuela - Los fisioterapeutasPlay Caption
And with this last term, we have come to the end of this lesson about body parts in Spanish. We encourage you to practice the names of all of these partes del cuerpo, and don't forget to send us your comments and suggestions. ¡Hasta la próxima!